Puebloans in Treeless Chaco Canyon Hauled 240,000 Trees over 75 KM for House Construction

Puebloans in Treeless Chaco Canyon Hauled 240,000 Trees over 75 KM for House Construction


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Analysis of tree-ring patterns shows the prehistoric Pueblo Indians who built the multi-story great houses in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, at one time hauled huge wooden beams a good distance from one valley for their construction and then suddenly switched to another valley’s trees. Archaeologists doing the research said both mountain ranges are about 75 kilometers (46 miles) from Chaco Canyon, which was virtually treeless.

The researchers said over the years there has been intense debate over the source of the trees used as beams in the wood-and-stone structures as there were seven nearby mountain ranges from which the trees could have originated. Some of the structures have hundreds of rooms and stand five stories high. They are among the largest buildings dating to before 1492 in North America.

The builders of the great houses at the iconic site used thousands of trees to do the construction between 850 and 1140 AD, says an article in Phys.org about the research. Painstaking analysis of the wood was conducted by University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research.

Christopher Guiterman, the lead author of the paper ( abstract) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, said his team used the dendroprovenance method of determining where the trees for supporting beams originated. This method had not been used in the American Southwest before his study.

Wooden beams for Chaco Canyon’s great houses came from two different valleys, researchers said. (Photo by Stephen C. Price/ Wikimedia Commons )

Previously, other University of Arizona researchers’ chemical analysis of the wood showed one source as the Chuska Mountains. But Guiterman et al.’s research shows another, earlier source was wood from the Zuni Mountains. About 70 percent of the wood in the great houses came from those two valleys.

For four years, Guiterman and colleagues looked through some 6,000 wood specimens collected from Chaco Canyon great houses and nearby areas. The specimens are stored in many boxes at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, Phys.org says. Researchers began collecting wood from the pueblos and nearby areas in the 1920s.

A drawing showing construction of the Chaco Canyon great houses (Drawing by Stephen H. Lekson/ Wikimedia Commons )

Mr. Guiterman compared the ring patterns on the beams from 170 great houses to trees from seven surrounding mountain ranges.

"The casual observer will see hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of beams sticking out of the walls. There's wood all over the place in these structures," Mr. Guiterman told Phys.org. "They're built out of stone and wood."

The abstract sums up in PNAS the basis of the research:

“The iconic great houses of Chaco Canyon occupy a nearly treeless landscape and yet were some of the largest pre-Columbian structures in North America. This incongruity has sparked persistent debate over the origins of more than 240,000 trees used in construction. We used tree-ring methods for determining timber origins for the first time to our knowledge in the southwestern United States and show that 70% of timbers likely originated over 75 km from Chaco. We found that a previously unrecognized timber source, the Zuni Mountains, supplied construction beams as early as the 850s in the Common Era. Further, we elucidate shifting dynamics of procurement that highlight the importance of a single landscape, the Chuska Mountains, in the florescence [height] of the Chacoan system [around 1060 AD].”

The change in the source of wood coincides with a change in construction styles and activity. The builders changed their masonry style, and then the amount of construction increased greatly, said Mr. Guiterman, a doctoral candidate at the University of Arizona’s School of Natural Resources and the Environment.

Chaco Canyon structures were built with wood mainly from two valleys, both about 46 miles from the city center that served as a hub for trade, politics and religion. (U.S. National Park Service photo/ Wikimedia Commons )

Also, around the same time other people’s projectile points, carving tools and pottery started coming to Chaco Canyon from the Chuska Mountains, Mr. Guiterman told Phys.org.

The Chaco Culture sites are on UNESCO’s World Heritage Site list. UNESCO says the Pueblo people lived in a vast area of the Southwestern United States, including Chaco Canyon, from 850 to 1250. Chaco Canyon itself was a hub of political, trade and ceremonial activity.

“Chaco is remarkable for its monumental public and ceremonial buildings and its distinctive architecture – it has an ancient urban ceremonial centre that is unlike anything constructed before or since,” the UNESCO article says.

Feature image: Some of the Chaco Canyon ruins are still standing (Photo by HJPD/ Wikimedia Commons )

By: Mark Miller


Chaco Canyon, Nouveau-Mexique


Ruines de Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, Nouveau-Mexique

Au fond des déserts reculés du nord-ouest du Nouveau-Mexique, se trouvent les vastes ruines de la plus grande réussite architecturale des Indiens d'Amérique du Nord. Connu sous le nom de complexe du Chaco Canyon, le site était le principal centre social et cérémoniel de la culture Anasazi. Nous ne savons pas réellement comment ces personnes se sont appelées le mot Anasazi est un mot navaho qui signifie différemment "les anciens" ou "les ennemis de nos anciens pères". Les premiers Anasazi (100 BC.) Étaient des chasseurs-cueilleurs nomades s'étendant sur de vastes étendues de territoire par AD 700, ils avaient commencé à vivre dans des communautés sédentaires, dont Chaco Canyon est le meilleur exemple. Des travaux de construction intensifs ont eu lieu dans l’ensemble du Chaco Canyon, d’AD 900 à 1100, ce qui a permis de développer plusieurs complexes d’habitations sophistiqués. Pueblo Bonito (qui signifie "joli village" en espagnol le nom original Anasazi étant inconnu) comptait plus de six cent pièces, de nombreux bâtiments de deux et trois étages, plusieurs structures de cérémonie appelées kivaset une population entre 800 et 1200. De la datation des anneaux d’arbres, on sait qu’une période de grande sécheresse s’est abattue sur la région de Chaco en AD 1150, entraînant l’abandon du site. Redécouvert à 1849 par des soldats de l'armée américaine, le site a été gravement vandalisé pendant soixante-dix ans jusqu'à ce qu'il devienne un monument national à 1907. Dans 1920, la National Geographic Society a entamé une reconstruction en profondeur du site.

Une série énigmatique de lignes droites qui s'étendent sur dix à vingt milles dans le désert rayonnent du complexe du Chaco. Les théories archéologiques conventionnelles expliquent ces lignes en tant que routes menant à des colonies périphériques, mais cela semble hautement improbable, car les lignes sont droites, peu importe le terrain. Ils vont sur tables (montagnes de la table), le long des falaises verticales et le long des falaises, et le long de chemins qui les rendent tout à fait impraticables pour les voyageurs occasionnels ou les touristes. Peut-être qu'ils avaient un autre but. Paul Devereux, érudit britannique et écrivain dans le domaine des "Mystères de la Terre" a suggéré que ces lignes (et d'autres qu'il a étudiées dans le monde entier) sont mieux comprises comme des marques qui représentent les voyages hors du corps des anciens chamanes. . Les recherches archéologiques indiquent en effet que les lignes mènent souvent à de petites structures ressemblant à des sanctuaires où des preuves d'activités religieuses et chamaniques sont courantes. Ces lignes mystérieuses, parfois apparemment entre aucun endroit particulier, se retrouvent dans de nombreuses parties de la région d'Anasazi. Plus de cinq cent milles de lignes ont été cartographiés jusqu'à présent. De nos jours, elles ne sont généralement visibles que tôt le matin ou en fin d’après-midi, lorsque le soleil projette de profondes ombres. En inspectant ces lignes au niveau du sol, il est évident qu'elles ont été touchées par plusieurs centaines d'années d'érosion naturelle, qui ont masqué tous les vestiges, à l'exception des plus rares. Il semble donc raisonnable de penser que ces lignes, avant leur érosion, auraient pu être suivies sur de grandes étendues de terres, délimitant ainsi une énorme grille ou carte de géographie sacrée et chamanique. Les lecteurs intéressés par ces questions devraient consulter les livres de Devereux énumérés dans la bibliographie.


Grande Kiva de Pueblo Bonito Ruins, Chaco Canyon, Nouveau-Mexique

Bois dans un paysage sans arbres

Les archéologues ont aidé à résoudre le mystère de la découverte par des pueblos antiques du Nouveau-Mexique de bois d'œuvre pour la construction des monumentales «grandes maisons» de Chaco Canyon dans un paysage presque sans arbres. Construites autour des arbres 240,000, les maisons sont parmi les plus grands bâtiments précolombiens en Amérique du Nord. Beaucoup ont jusqu'à cinq étages et contiennent des centaines de pièces.

Des chercheurs de l'Université de l'Arizona ont analysé les données sur les cernes d'arbres afin de déterminer les origines géographiques du bois - la première fois que cette méthode de dendroprovenance a été utilisée dans le sud-ouest des États-Unis. Les résultats montrent que le bois provient de deux chaînes de montagnes différentes. Avant AD 1020, la majeure partie du bois provenait d'une source de bois jusqu'alors inconnue, les monts Zuni, à environ 75 kilomètres au sud du site. Cependant, après AD 1060, les Chacoans se procuraient des arbres dans les montagnes de Chuska, à environ 75 kilomètres à l’ouest.

Le changement coïncide avec une expansion de la culture chacoenne dans la région et la construction de nombreuses nouvelles grandes maisons. Christopher Guiterman de l’Université de l’Arizona, auteur principal de l’étude, a déclaré à CWA (magazine Current World Archaeology): «Les résultats montrent que le bois a été transporté de très loin au Chaco Canyon - sans l’aide de bêtes de somme, la roue, outils en métal, ou un cours d'eau majeur, et l'approvisionnement en bois était un processus dynamique et changeant. L'arrivée des bois de construction tchèques montre un changement radical dans la société chacoenne. Nous voyons maintenant que lorsque les matériaux commencent à arriver des Chuskas, la formation et la prolifération de la société chacoenne se cristallisent et le chaco que nous connaissons aujourd'hui est le résultat de cette transformation. '

Martin Gray est un anthropologue culturel, écrivain et photographe spécialisé dans l'étude et la documentation de lieux de pèlerinage à travers le monde. Au cours d'une année 38, il a visité plus de sites sacrés 1500 dans les pays 165. le Guide de pèlerinage mondial Le site Web est la source d’information la plus complète sur ce sujet.

Chaco Canyon, New Mexico


Rovine di Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

Nelle profondità dei deserti remoti del New Mexico nordoccidentale si trovano le estese rovine del più grande successo architettonico degli indiani nordamericani. Conosciuto come il complesso del Chaco Canyon, il sito era il principale centro sociale e cerimoniale della cultura Anasazi. In realtà non sappiamo come si chiamassero queste persone la parola Anasazi è una parola Navaho che significa in vario modo "gli antichi" o "i nemici dei nostri antichi padri". I primi Anasazi (100 aC) erano cacciatori-raccoglitori nomadi che si estendevano su grandi distese di territorio da AD 700 avevano cominciato a vivere in comunità stabilite, di cui Chaco Canyon è l'esempio migliore. La costruzione intensiva si è verificata in tutto il Chaco Canyon da AD 900 a 1100, dando vita allo sviluppo di numerosi sofisticati complessi di abitazioni. Pueblo Bonito (che significa "grazioso villaggio" in spagnolo, il cui nome originale Anasazi è sconosciuto) aveva più di seicento stanze, numerosi edifici a due e tre piani, diverse strutture cerimoniali chiamate kivase una popolazione tra 800 e 1200 persone. Dalla datazione ad anelli, è noto che un periodo di grande siccità si è verificato nella zona del Chaco in 1150, causando l'abbandono del sito. Riscoperto in 1849 dai soldati dell'esercito degli Stati Uniti, il sito è stato gravemente distrutto da atti vandalici per settanta anni fino a quando non è diventato un monumento nazionale in 1907. In 1920, la National Geographic Society ha iniziato una ricostruzione approfondita del sito.

Le radiazioni del complesso Chaco sono una serie enigmatica di linee rette che si estendono da dieci a venti miglia nel deserto. Le teorie archeologiche convenzionali spiegano queste linee come strade che conducono agli insediamenti periferici, ma questo sembra altamente improbabile, poiché le linee sono diritte, indipendentemente dal terreno. Si avvicinano tavoli (montagne da tavolo), su e giù per le pareti verticali della scogliera e lungo i percorsi che li rendono assolutamente pratici per l'uso da parte del viaggiatore occasionale o commerciale. Forse avevano un altro scopo. Paul Devereux, studioso e scrittore britannico nel cosiddetto campo "Misteri della terra" ha suggerito che queste linee (e altre che ha studiato in tutto il mondo) sono meglio comprese come segni che rappresentano i viaggi spirituali fuori dal corpo degli antichi sciamani . La ricerca archeologica indica infatti che le linee spesso conducono a piccole strutture simili a un santuario dove è comune la prova di attività religiose e sciamaniche. Queste linee misteriose, a volte apparentemente tra nessun luogo particolare, si trovano in molte parti della regione di Anasazi. Più di cinquecento miglia di linee sono state finora tracciate. Oggigiorno sono per lo più visibili solo dall'aria al mattino presto o nel tardo pomeriggio, quando il sole proietta ombre profonde. Ispezionando queste linee a livello del suolo, è evidente che sono state messe in atto da centinaia di anni di erosione naturale, che ha oscurato tutti tranne i pochi resti. Sembra quindi ragionevole suggerire che queste linee, prima della loro erosione, avrebbero potuto essere seguite attraverso grandi distese di terra, delineando in tal modo un'enorme griglia o mappa di geografia sacra e sciamanica. I lettori interessati a questi argomenti dovrebbero consultare i libri di Devereux elencati nella bibliografia.


Great Kiva of Pueblo Bonito Ruins, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

Legno in un paesaggio senza alberi

Gli archeologi hanno aiutato a risolvere il mistero di dove gli antichi pueblo del New Mexico hanno ottenuto legname per costruire le monumentali "grandiose" del Chaco Canyon in un paesaggio quasi privo di alberi. Costruite intorno agli alberi 240,000, le case sono alcuni dei più grandi edifici precolombiani del Nord America. Molti sono alti fino a cinque piani e contengono centinaia di stanze.

I ricercatori dell'Università dell'Arizona hanno analizzato i dati degli anelli degli alberi per determinare le origini geografiche del legname - la prima volta che questo metodo di dendroprovazione è stato utilizzato negli Stati Uniti sudoccidentali. I risultati mostrano che il legname proveniva da due diverse catene montuose. Prima di AD 1020, la maggior parte del legno proveniva da una fonte di legname precedentemente non riconosciuta - le montagne Zuni, circa 75 chilometri a sud del sito. Ad AD 1060, tuttavia, i Chacoan stavano procurando alberi dalle montagne di Chuska, a circa 75 chilometri a ovest.

L'interruttore coincide con un'espansione della cultura Chacoan nell'area e la costruzione di molte nuove grandi case. Christopher Guiterman dell'Università dell'Arizona, autore principale dello studio, ha dichiarato alla CWA (Current World Archaeology magazine), "I risultati mostrano che il legno è stato trasportato a Chaco Canyon da una grande distanza - senza l'aiuto di bestie da soma, la ruota, strumenti di metallo, o un corso d'acqua importante, e l'approvvigionamento del legno era un processo dinamico e mutevole. L'arrivo dei legni di Chuskan significa un cambiamento radicale nella società Chacoan. Ora vediamo che una volta che i materiali iniziano ad arrivare dai Chuskas, la formazione e la proliferazione della società Chacoan si cristallizza, e il Chaco che conosciamo oggi è il risultato di questa trasformazione. "

Martin Gray è un antropologo culturale, scrittore e fotografo specializzato nello studio e nella documentazione dei luoghi di pellegrinaggio di tutto il mondo. Durante un periodo di 38 ha visitato più di 1500 siti sacri nei paesi 165. Il Guida mondiale di pellegrinaggio il sito web è la fonte di informazioni più completa su questo argomento.

Chaco Canyon, Novo México


Ruínas de Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, Novo México

Nas profundezas dos desertos remotos do noroeste do Novo México encontram-se as extensas ruínas da maior conquista arquitetônica dos índios norte-americanos. Conhecido como o complexo Chaco Canyon, o local era o principal centro social e cerimonial da cultura Anasazi. Na verdade, não sabemos o que essas pessoas chamavam a si mesmas a palavra Anasazi é uma palavra Navaho que significa várias vezes "os antigos" ou "os inimigos de nossos antigos pais". Os primeiros Anasazi (100 aC.) Eram caçadores-coletores nômades, abrangendo grandes extensões de território por AD 700 eles começaram a viver em comunidades estabelecidas, das quais Chaco Canyon é o melhor exemplo. Construção intensiva ocorreu em todo o Chaco Canyon de AD 900 para 1100, resultando no desenvolvimento de vários complexos residenciais sofisticados. Pueblo Bonito (que significa "bonita aldeia" em espanhol o nome original de Anasazi era desconhecido) tinha mais de seiscentos quartos, numerosos edifícios de dois e três andares, várias estruturas cerimoniais chamadas kivase uma população entre pessoas 800 e 1200. A partir da datação por anéis de árvores, sabe-se que um período de grande seca atingiu a área do Chaco em AD 1150, causando o abandono do local. Redescoberto em 1849 por soldados do Exército dos EUA, o local foi severamente vandalizado por setenta anos até se tornar um monumento nacional em 1907. Em 1920, a National Geographic Society iniciou uma reconstrução completa do local.

Irradiando-se do complexo do Chaco há uma série enigmática de linhas retas que se estendem de dez a vinte milhas para o deserto. Teorias arqueológicas convencionais explicam essas linhas como estradas que levam a povoações periféricas, mas isso parece altamente improvável, já que as linhas são retas independentemente do terreno. Eles passam por cima tabelas (montanhas de mesa), penhascos verticais para cima e para baixo e por caminhos que os tornam totalmente impraticáveis ​​para uso do viajante casual ou comercial. Talvez eles tivessem outro propósito. Paul Devereux, um acadêmico e escritor britânico no chamado campo "Mistérios da Terra", sugeriu que essas linhas (e outras que ele estudou em todo o mundo) são melhor entendidas como marcas que representam as viagens espirituais fora do corpo de antigos xamãs. . Pesquisas arqueológicas indicam, de fato, que as linhas freqüentemente levam a pequenas estruturas parecidas com santuários, onde evidências de atividades religiosas e xamânicas são comuns. Essas linhas misteriosas, às vezes aparentemente entre nenhum lugar específico, são encontradas em muitas partes da região de Anasazi. Mais de quinhentas milhas das linhas foram até agora mapeadas. Hoje em dia eles são visíveis apenas a partir do ar no início da manhã ou no final da tarde, quando o sol lança sombras profundas. Inspecionando essas linhas no nível do solo, é evidente que elas foram influenciadas por muitas centenas de anos de erosão natural, o que obscureceu quase todos os restos escassos. Portanto, parece razoável sugerir que essas linhas, antes de sua erosão, poderiam ter sido seguidas através de grandes extensões de terra, delineando assim uma enorme grade ou mapa da geografia sagrada e xamânica. Os leitores interessados ​​nesses assuntos devem consultar os livros de Devereux listados na bibliografia.


Grande Kiva de Ruínas de Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, Novo México

Madeira em uma paisagem sem árvores

Arqueólogos ajudaram a resolver o mistério de onde antigos povoados do Novo México obtiveram madeira para construir as monumentais "grandes casas" do Chaco Canyon em uma paisagem quase sem árvores. Construídas em torno de árvores 240,000, as casas são alguns dos maiores edifícios pré-colombianos da América do Norte. Muitos têm até cinco andares e contêm centenas de quartos.

Pesquisadores da Universidade do Arizona analisaram dados de anéis de árvores para determinar as origens geográficas da madeira - a primeira vez que esse método de dendroproventimento foi usado no sudoeste dos Estados Unidos. Os resultados mostram que a madeira veio de duas montanhas diferentes. Antes de AD 1020, a maior parte da madeira vinha de uma fonte de madeira anteriormente desconhecida - as Montanhas Zuni, a cerca de 75 quilômetros ao sul do local. Por AD 1060, no entanto, os Chacoans estavam obtendo árvores das montanhas Chuska, cerca de 75 quilômetros a oeste.

A mudança coincide com a expansão da cultura Chacoan na área e a construção de muitas novas grandes casas. Christopher Guiterman, da Universidade do Arizona, principal autor do estudo, disse à CWA (Current World Archaeology magazine): 'Os resultados mostram que a madeira foi transportada para o Chaco Canyon de uma grande distância - sem a ajuda de bestas de carga, a roda, ferramentas de metal, ou um grande curso de água, e a aquisição de madeira era um processo dinâmico e cambiante. A chegada das madeiras Chuskan significa uma mudança dramática na sociedade Chacoan. Agora vemos que, uma vez que os materiais começam a chegar dos Chuskas, a formação e proliferação da sociedade Chacoan se cristalizam, e o Chaco que conhecemos hoje é o resultado dessa transformação ”.

Martin Gray é antropóloga cultural, escritora e fotógrafa, especializada no estudo e documentação de locais de peregrinação em todo o mundo. Durante um período do ano 38, ele visitou mais de locais sagrados 1500 nos países da 165. o Guia Mundial de Peregrinação O site é a fonte mais abrangente de informações sobre esse assunto.

Chaco Canyon, ახალი მექსიკა


პუელლო ბონიტო ნანგრევები, ჩაკო კანიონი, ახალი მექსიკა

ჩრდილო-დასავლეთით New Mexico- ს შორეულ უდაბნოში მდებარეობს ჩრდილოეთ ამერიკელი ინდიელების უდიდესი არქიტექტურული მიღწევის ვრცელი ნანგრევები. ცნობილი როგორც Chaco Canyon კომპლექსი, საიტი იყო მთავარი სოციალური და საზეიმო ცენტრი Anasazi კულტურა. ჩვენ არ ვიცით, რას უწოდებენ ამ ხალხს? სიტყვა ანასაზი არის ნავალო სიტყვა, რომელიც ნიშნავს "უძველეს" ან "ჩვენი უძველესი მამების მტრებს" ადრეულ Anasazi (100 BC) იყო მომთაბარე მონადირე-შემგროვებლები, რომლებიც იყენებენ ტერიტორიის დიდ ხარჯებს AD 700- მა მათ დაიწყეს დასახლებული თემების ცხოვრება, რომელთა შორისაც Chaco Canyon არის საუკეთესო მაგალითი. ინტენსიური მშენებლობა ჩაკო კანიონის მასშტაბით მოხდა AD 900- დან 1100- მდე, რამაც რამდენიმე დახვეწილი საცხოვრებელი კომპლექსის განვითარება გამოიწვია. Pueblo Bonito (ნიშნავს "საკმაოდ სოფელს" ესპანეთში, თავდაპირველი Anasazi სახელი უცნობი) ჰქონდა მეტი ექვსას ოთახი, მრავალი ორი და სამი სართული შენობები, რამდენიმე საზეიმო სტრუქტურების მოუწოდა კივა, და მოსახლეობა შორის 800 და 1200 პირები. მდებარეობა ხე-ბეჭედი dating, ცნობილია, რომ პერიოდი დიდი გვალვა მოვიდა საფუძველზე Chaco ფართობი AD 1150, რამაც მიტოვება საიტი. აშშ-ის არმიის ჯარისკაცებმა აღმოაჩინეს XIX საუკუნის 90-იან წლებში, სანამ იგი ეროვნული ძეგლი 1849- ში არ ყოფილა. ნაციონალურ გეოგრაფიულ საზოგადოებაში სულ დაიწყო XII საუკუნის დასაწყისში.

შაკო კომპლექსის გამოსხივება სწორი ხაზების იდუმალი სერიაა, რომელიც უდაბნოში ათიდან მილის მანძილზე ვრცელდება. ჩვეულებრივი არქეოლოგიური თეორიები განმარტავს ამ ხაზებს, რომლებიც მიმავალი დასახლებებისკენ მიმავალი გზაა, მაგრამ ეს ნაკლებად სავარაუდოა, რადგან ხაზები arrow სწორია, მიუხედავად იმისა, ისინი წავიდნენ mesas (მაგიდის ზედა მთები), ქვემოთ და ქვემოთ ვერტიკალური cliff სახეები, და ერთად გზები, რომ ისინი სრულიად impractical გამოყენების შემთხვევით ან კომერციული მოგზაური. შესაძლოა, მათ კიდევ ერთი მიზანი ჰქონდათ. ე.წ. "დედამიწის საიდუმლოების" დარგში ბრიტანელი მეცნიერისა და მწერალი პოლ დევერიუქსი ვარაუდობს, რომ ეს ხაზები (და სხვები სწავლობენ მთელს მსოფლიოში) უკეთესად გაგებული, როგორც ნიშნები, რომლებიც წარმოადგენენ უძველესი შამანის . არქეოლოგიური კვლევა მართლაც მიუთითებს იმაზე, რომ ხაზები ხშირად მცირე ზომის ხარვეზულ სტრუქტურებს ატარებს, სადაც რელიგიური და შამანისტური საქმიანობის მტკიცებულებები საერთოა. ეს საიდუმლო ხაზები, ზოგადად, კონკრეტული ადგილებისგან განსხვავებით, ანასაზის რაიონის ბევრ ნაწილში გვხვდება. ხუთას კილომეტრიანი ხაზები ჯერჯერობით ჩამოთვლილია. დღესდღეობით ისინი ძირითადად ხვდებიან მხოლოდ საჰაერო ხომალდიდან ან გვიან შუადღემდე, როცა მზე ღრმა ჩრდილებს იტევს. ნიადაგზე ამ ხაზების შემოწმება, აშკარაა, რომ ისინი ასრულებდნენ მრავალი ასწლიანი ბუნებრივი ეროზიით, რაც გაურკვეველია ყველა, მაგრამ მწირი ნაშთები. აქედან გამომდინარე, გონივრული ჩანს, რომ ეს ხაზები, მათი ეროზიის წინ, დიდი ხნის მანძილზე შეიძლება განხორციელდეს მიწის დიდი ხარჯებით, რითაც განისაზღვრა უზარმაზარი ქსელი ან წმინდა და შამანისტური გეოგრაფიის რუკა. ამ საკითხებით დაინტერესებულ მკითხველებს უნდა მიმართონ ბიბლიოგრაფიაში მოცემული დევერსის წიგნები.


პუიბლო ბონიტოს ნანგრევების დიდი კვა, ჩაკო კანიონი, ახალი მექსიკა

ხის უნაყოფო ლანდშაფტი

არქეოლოგებმა დაეხმარეს საიდუმლოს, სადაც ნიუ-მექსიკოს უძველესი პუელბოზი მოპოვებული ხე-ტყის დამზადებაა, რომელიც უჩვეულო ლანდშაფტის ჩაკო კანიონის მონუმენტურ "დიდ სახლებს" აშენებს. აშენდა დაახლოებით 240,000 ხეები, სახლები ზოგიერთი უდიდესი pre-Columbian შენობები ჩრდილოეთ ამერიკაში. ბევრი ხუთამდე სიმაღლეა და ასობით ნომერია.

არიზონას უნივერსიტეტის მკვლევარებმა აანალიზეს ხე-ბეჭედი მონაცემები, რათა დადგინდეს ხის გეოგრაფიული წარმოშობა - პირველად ამ დენთროპევანაზციის მეთოდი გამოყენებულია სამხრეთ-დასავლეთ ამერიკის შეერთებულ შტატებში. შედეგები გვიჩვენებს ხის მოვიდა ორი სხვადასხვა მთებიდან. XVII საუკუნის დასაწყისში, ხის უმეტესი ნაწილი მოვიდა არაღიარებული ხის წყაროდან - Zuni Mountains, დაახლოებით სამხრეთ 1020 კილომეტრის დაშორებით. XX საუკუნეში, Chacoans იყო sourcing ხეები Chuska მთები, დაახლოებით 75 კილომეტრით დასავლეთით.

გადაადგილება ემთხვევა ფართობი Chacoan კულტურის სფეროში, და შენობაში ბევრი ახალი დიდი სახლები. კრისტოფერ გიიტერმანმა, Arizona- ს უნივერსიტეტიდან, CWA- ს (მიმდინარე მსოფლიო არქეოლოგიური ჟურნალი) განუცხადა, რომ შედეგები ხილული იყო შაკო კანიონში, დიდი მანძილიდან - ტვირთის მწვავე, საჭე, ლითონის იარაღები, ან ძირითადი წყლის ჩათვლით და ხის შესყიდვა იყო დინამიური და შეცვლის პროცესი. Chuskan timbers ჩამოსვლას ნიშნავს Chacoan საზოგადოებაში დრამატული ცვლილება. ჩვენ ახლა ვხედავთ, რომ მას შემდეგ, რაც ერთხელ მასალები დაიწყება ჩუსკასგან, შეიქმნება ჩაქოანის საზოგადოების ჩამოყალიბება და გავრცელება და დღეს ჩვენ ვიცით Chaco ამ ტრანსფორმაციის შედეგი.

Martin Gray არის კულტურული ანთროპოლოგი, მწერალი და ფოტოგრაფი, რომელიც სპეციალიზირებულია მსოფლიოში მომლოცველთა ადგილების შესწავლა-დოკუმენტაციაში. 38 წლის განმავლობაში მან მოინახულა 1500- ზე მეტი წმინდა ადგილები 165 ქვეყნებში. მსოფლიო მომლოცველთა სახელმძღვანელო ვებ – გვერდი ამ თემაზე ინფორმაციის ყველაზე სრულყოფილი წყაროა.

Чако Каньон, Нью-Мексико


Руины Пуэбло Бонито, каньон Чако, Нью-Мексико

Глубоко в отдаленных пустынях северо-запада Нью-Мексико лежат обширные руины величайшего архитектурного достижения индейцев Северной Америки. Известный как комплекс Чако-Каньон, место было главным социальным и церемониальным центром культуры Анасази. На самом деле мы не знаем, как эти люди называли себя слово Anasazi это слово навахо, означающее по-разному «древние» или «враги наших древних отцов». Ранние Анасази (100 до н. Э.) Были кочевыми охотниками-собирателями, простирающимися на огромных территориях к X в. н. э. они начали жить в устоявшихся общинах, лучшим примером которых является каньон Чако. Интенсивное строительство происходило по всему каньону Чако от AD 700 до 900, что привело к созданию нескольких сложных жилых комплексов. Пуэбло Бонито (что в переводе с испанского означает «красивая деревня» оригинальное имя Анасази неизвестно) насчитывало более шести сотен комнат, многочисленные двух- и трехэтажные здания, несколько церемониальных сооружений kivasи население между 800 и 1200 людьми. Из датировок по кольцам деревьев известно, что в Чако в нашей эры 1150 наступил период сильной засухи, что привело к отказу от этого места. Заново обнаруженный в 1849 солдатами армии США, сайт подвергался жестоким разрушениям в течение семидесяти лет, пока не стал национальным памятником в 1907. В 1920 Национальное географическое общество начало тщательную реконструкцию сайта.

Из комплекса Чако исходят загадочные серии прямых линий, которые простираются на десять-двадцать миль в пустыню. Традиционные археологические теории объясняют эти линии как дороги, ведущие к отдаленным поселениям, но это кажется маловероятным, поскольку линии являются прямыми стрелками независимо от местности. Они идут Таблицы (настольные горы), вверх и вниз по вертикальным склонам скал и вдоль путей, которые делают их совершенно непрактичными для использования случайным или коммерческим путешественником. Возможно, у них была другая цель. Пол Деверо, британский ученый и писатель в области так называемых «тайн Земли», предположил, что эти линии (и другие, которые он изучал по всему миру) лучше понимать как маркировки, которые представляют путешествия духа вне тела древних шаманов. , Археологические исследования действительно указывают на то, что линии часто приводят к небольшим подобным святыне структурам, где доказательства религиозной и шаманской деятельности распространены. Эти таинственные линии, иногда, по-видимому, между конкретными местами, обнаруживаются во многих частях региона Анасази. Более пяти сотен миль линий уже наметили. В настоящее время они в основном видны только с воздуха рано утром или поздно днем, когда солнце отбрасывает глубокие тени. При осмотре этих линий на уровне земли становится очевидным, что на них воздействовали многие сотни лет естественной эрозии, которая затмила все, кроме редких останков. Поэтому представляется разумным предположить, что эти линии до их эрозии могли проходить по огромным просторам земли, тем самым очерчивая огромную сетку или карту сакральной и шаманской географии. Читатели, интересующиеся этими вопросами, должны обратиться к книгам Деверо, перечисленным в библиографии.


Великая Кива руин Пуэбло Бонито, каньон Чако, Нью-Мексико

Дерево в безлесном пейзаже

Археологи помогли разгадать тайну, откуда древние пуэбло из Нью-Мексико добывали древесину для строительства монументальных «великих домов» Каньона Чако в почти безлесном ландшафте. Построенные из деревьев 240,000, эти дома являются одними из самых больших доколумбовых зданий в Северной Америке. Многие из них имеют высоту до пяти этажей и содержат сотни комнат.

Исследователи из Университета Аризоны проанализировали данные о кольцах деревьев, чтобы определить географическое происхождение древесины - впервые этот метод дендропровенанса был использован на юго-западе США. Результаты показывают, что древесина поступила из двух разных горных хребтов. До нашей эры 1020 большая часть древесины была получена из ранее неизвестного источника древесины - гор Цуни, примерно в 75 километрах к югу от участка. Однако к 1060 нашей эры чакоанцы добывали деревья в горах Чуска, примерно в 75 километрах к западу.

Переключение совпадает с расширением чакоанской культуры в этом районе и строительством множества новых великих домов. Кристофер Гитерман из Университета Аризоны, ведущий автор исследования, рассказал CWA (журнал Current World Archeology): «Результаты показывают, что древесина транспортировалась в каньон Чако с большого расстояния - без помощи тяжёлых тварей, колеса, металлические инструменты, или крупный водоток, и заготовка древесины была динамичным и меняющимся процессом. Прибытие чусканских пиломатериалов означает драматические изменения в чакоанском обществе. Теперь мы видим, что, как только материалы начинают поступать из чуска, происходит формирование и распространение чакоанского общества, и чако, которое мы знаем сегодня, является результатом этой трансформации ».

Martin Gray культурный антрополог, писатель и фотограф, специализирующийся на изучении и документировании мест паломничества по всему миру. За год 38 он посетил более священных мест 1500 в странах 165. Всемирный гид по паломничеству веб-сайт является наиболее полным источником информации на эту тему.

Chaco-Schlucht, New Mexiko


Pueblo Bonito Ruinen, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

Tief in den fernen Wüsten des nordwestlichen New Mexico liegen die umfangreichen Ruinen der größten architektonischen Errungenschaften der nordamerikanischen Indianer. Bekannt als der Chaco Canyon-Komplex, war der Ort das wichtigste soziale und zeremonielle Zentrum der Anasazi-Kultur. Wir wissen nicht wirklich, wie diese Leute sich nannten das Wort Anasazi ist ein Navaho-Wort, das auf verschiedene Weise "die Alten" oder "die Feinde unserer alten Väter" bedeutet. Die frühen Anasazi (100 v. Chr.) Waren nomadische Jäger und Sammler, die sich über große Gebiete erstreckten. von AD 700 hatten sie begonnen, in besiedelten Gemeinden zu leben, von denen der Chaco Canyon das beste Beispiel ist. Während des gesamten Chaco Canyon wurden intensive Bauarbeiten von AD 900 bis 1100 durchgeführt, was zur Entwicklung mehrerer anspruchsvoller Wohnkomplexe führte. Pueblo Bonito (was auf Spanisch "hübsches Dorf" bedeutet der ursprüngliche Name der Anasazi ist unbekannt) hatte mehr als sechshundert Zimmer, zahlreiche zwei- und dreistöckige Gebäude, die mehrere zeremonielle Strukturen hießen kivasund eine Population zwischen 800- und 1200-Personen. Aus der Datierung von Baumringen ist bekannt, dass das Gebiet um Chaco in AD 1150 von einer großen Dürre betroffen war, die zur Aufgabe des Standorts führte. Die von Soldaten der US-Armee in 1849 wiederentdeckte Website wurde siebzig Jahre lang stark zerstört, bis sie in 1907 zum Nationaldenkmal wurde. In 1920 begann die National Geographic Society mit einer gründlichen Rekonstruktion des Standorts.

Aus dem Chaco-Komplex strahlt eine rätselhafte Reihe gerader Linien aus, die sich zehn bis zwanzig Meilen in die Wüste erstrecken. Herkömmliche archäologische Theorien erklären diese Linien als Straßen, die zu abgelegenen Siedlungen führen. Dies ist jedoch höchst unwahrscheinlich, da die Linien ungeachtet des Geländes pfeilgerade sind. Sie gehen rüber Tabellen (Tafelberge), auf und ab senkrechte Felswände und Wege, die sie für den Gelegenheits- oder Geschäftsreisenden völlig unpraktisch machen. Vielleicht hatten sie einen anderen Zweck. Paul Devereux, ein britischer Gelehrter und Schriftsteller auf dem Gebiet der sogenannten "Earth Mysteries", hat vorgeschlagen, dass diese Linien (und andere, die er auf der ganzen Welt studiert hat) besser als Markierungen verstanden werden, die die außerkörperlichen Geisterreisen der alten Schamanen darstellen . Aus archäologischen Untersuchungen geht in der Tat hervor, dass die Linien häufig zu kleinen schreinartigen Strukturen führen, in denen Hinweise auf religiöse und schamanistische Aktivitäten häufig sind. Diese mysteriösen Linien, manchmal scheinbar zwischen keinen bestimmten Orten, sind in vielen Teilen der Anasazi-Region zu finden. Bisher wurden mehr als 500 Meilen der Linien kartiert. Heutzutage sind sie meistens nur am frühen Morgen oder am späten Nachmittag aus der Luft sichtbar, wenn die Sonne tiefe Schatten wirft. Wenn man diese Linien in Bodennähe inspiziert, ist es offensichtlich, dass sie von vielen hundert Jahren natürlicher Erosion betroffen waren, die fast alle Überreste verdeckt hat. Es erscheint daher vernünftig, anzunehmen, dass diese Linien vor ihrer Erosion über große Landflächen gezogen worden sein könnten, wodurch ein riesiges Gitter oder eine Karte der heiligen und schamanistischen Geographie gezeichnet wurde. Leser, die sich für diese Themen interessieren, sollten die Bücher von Devereux konsultieren, die in der Bibliographie aufgeführt sind.


Großer Kiva von Pueblo-Bonito-Ruinen, Chaco-Schlucht, New Mexiko

Holz in einer baumlosen Landschaft

Archäologen haben geholfen, das Rätsel zu lösen, wo die alten Pueblos von New Mexico Holz beschafften, um die monumentalen "großen Häuser" des Chaco Canyon in einer fast baumlosen Landschaft zu errichten. Die Häuser wurden aus 240,000-Bäumen gebaut und sind einige der größten präkolumbianischen Gebäude in Nordamerika. Viele sind bis zu fünf Stockwerke hoch und enthalten Hunderte von Räumen.

Forscher der Universität von Arizona analysierten Baumringdaten, um die geografische Herkunft des Holzes zu bestimmen - das erste Mal, dass diese Dendroprovenanzmethode im Südwesten der USA angewendet wurde. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das Holz aus zwei verschiedenen Gebirgszügen stammt. Vor AD 1020 stammte der größte Teil des Holzes aus einer bislang unbekannten Holzquelle - den Zuni-Bergen, etwa 75 Kilometer südlich des Standorts. Bis AD 1060 beschafften die Chacoans jedoch Bäume aus den Chuska-Bergen, etwa 75 Kilometer westlich.

Der Wechsel fällt mit einer Ausweitung der Chacoan-Kultur in der Region und dem Bau vieler neuer großer Häuser zusammen. Christopher Guiterman von der Universität von Arizona, Hauptautor der Studie, sagte gegenüber CWA (Current World Archaeology Magazine): „Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das Holz aus großer Entfernung zum Chaco Canyon transportiert wurde - ohne die Hilfe von Lasttieren, dem Rad, Metallwerkzeuge oder ein wichtiger Wasserlauf, und die Holzbeschaffung war ein dynamischer und sich verändernder Prozess. Die Ankunft der Chuskan-Hölzer bedeutet eine dramatische Veränderung in der chacoanischen Gesellschaft. Wir sehen jetzt, dass sobald Materialien von den Chuskas ankommen, die Bildung und Verbreitung der Chacoan-Gesellschaft kristallisiert und der Chaco, den wir heute kennen, das Ergebnis dieser Transformation ist. '

Martin Gray ist ein Kulturanthropologe, Schriftsteller und Fotograf, der sich auf das Studium und die Dokumentation von Pilgerorten auf der ganzen Welt spezialisiert hat. Während eines 38-Jahres hat er mehr als 1500-heilige Stätten in 165-Ländern besucht. Das Weltpilgerführer Die Website ist die umfassendste Informationsquelle zu diesem Thema.

קניון צ'אקו, ניו מקסיקו


חורבות פואבלו בוניטו, קניון צ'אקו, ניו מקסיקו

עמוק במדבריות הנידחים בצפון-מערב מקסיקו שוכנות ההריסות הנרחבות של ההישג האדריכלי הגדול ביותר של צפון האינדיאנים. האתר, הידוע כמתחם קניון צ'אקו, היה המרכז החברתי והטקסי העיקרי של תרבות האנאזאזי. אנחנו לא ממש יודעים איך קראו האנשים האלה עצמם המילה אנאסזי היא מילה של נאוהו שמשמעותה שונה "הקדומים" או "אויבי אבותינו הקדומים". אנאסאזי המוקדמת (100 לפני הספירה) היו לקטים ציידים-נודדים ששטחו על פני מרחבי שטח גדולים עד לספירה 700 הם החלו לחיות ביישובים מיושבים, שקניון צ'אקו הוא הדוגמה הטובה ביותר לכך. בנייה אינטנסיבית התרחשה בכל קניון צ'אקו משנת 900 לספירה ל- 1100, וכתוצאה מכך התפתחו מספר מתחמי מגורים מתוחכמים. בפואבלו בוניטו (שפירושו "כפר יפה" בספרדית שמו המקורי של אנאסזי לא היה ידוע) היו יותר משש מאות חדרים, מספר מבנים בני שתי קומות ושלוש קומות, כמה מבנים טקסיים שנקראו קיווה, ואוכלוסייה בין אנשים 800 ל- 1200. מהתארוך טבעות עצים, ידוע שתקופת בצורת גדולה התרחשה באזור צ'אקו בספירה 1150, מה שגרם לנטישת האתר. האתר התגלה מחדש ב- 1849 על ידי חיילי צבא ארה"ב. הוא הושחת קשות במשך שבעים שנה עד שהפך לאנדרטה לאומית ב- 1907. ב- 1920 החלה החברה הלאומית ג'יאוגרפית בשחזור יסודי של האתר.

מקרין מתחם צ'אקו הם סדרה אניגמטית של קווים ישרים הנמשכים עשרה עד עשרים מיילים אל המדבר. תיאוריות ארכיאולוגיות קונבנציונאליות מסבירות קווים אלו ככבישים המובילים להתנחלויות רחוקות, אך זה נראה מאוד לא סביר, מכיוון שהקווים חצים ישר ללא קשר לתנאי השטח. הם עוברים mesas (הרים מלמעלה על השולחן), פנים וצוק אנכיות למעלה ולמטה, ובאופנים שהופכים אותם לבלתי מעשיים לשימושם של המטייל המזדמן או המסחרי. אולי הייתה להם מטרה אחרת. פול דוורו, חוקר וסופר בריטי בתחום שנקרא "מסתרי כדור הארץ", הציע כי ניתן להבין טוב יותר את השורות הללו (ואחרים שהוא חקר ברחבי העולם) כסימנים המייצגים את מסעות הרוח מחוץ לגוף של שאמאנים קדומים . מחקרים ארכיאולוגיים אכן מצביעים על כך שהקווים מובילים לרוב למבנים קטנים דמויי קבר קדוש בהם קיימת עדות לפעילות דתית ושמאניסטית. קווים מסתוריים אלה, לעיתים ככל הנראה בין מקומות לא מיוחדים, נמצאים באזורים רבים באזור אנאסזי. עד כה טופלו למעלה מחמש מאות מיילים מהקווים. בימינו הם נראים לרוב רק מהאוויר בשעות הבוקר המוקדמות או אחר הצהריים המאוחרות, כאשר השמש מטילה צללים עמוקים. בבחינת קווים אלו בגובה הקרקע, ניכר כי הם פועלים על ידי מאות שנים רבות של שחיקה טבעית, אשר העלתה את כל השרידים המעטים אך נדירים. לפיכך נראה סביר להניח כי ניתן היה לעקוב אחר קווים אלה לפני שחיקתם על פני מרחבי אדמה גדולים, ובכך לתחום רשת ענקית או מפה של גאוגרפיה קדושה ושמאניסטית. על הקוראים המעוניינים בעניינים אלה להתייעץ עם ספרי דהוארו המופיעים בביבליוגרפיה.


הקיבה הגדולה של חורבות פואבלו בוניטו, קניון צ'אקו, ניו מקסיקו

עץ בנוף נטול טרקים

ארכיאולוגים סייעו בפתרון התעלומה של המקום בו קיבלו פואבלו קדומים של ניו מקסיקו עצים לבניית 'הבתים הגדולים' המונומנטליים של קניון צ'אקו בנוף כמעט חסר טריל. הבתים, שנבנו סביב עצים של 240,000, הם כמה מהבניינים הגדולים לפני הקולומביאנים בצפון אמריקה. רבים הם בגובה של עד חמש קומות, ומכילים מאות חדרים.

חוקרים מאוניברסיטת אריזונה ניתחו את נתוני טבעת העץ כדי לקבוע את מקורם הגאוגרפי של העץ - הפעם הראשונה ששיטת דנדפרובנסנס זו משמשת בדרום מערב ארצות הברית. מהתוצאות עולה כי העץ הגיע משני טווחי הרים שונים. לפני ה- 1020 לספירה, רוב העץ הגיע ממקור עצים שלא היה מוכר בעבר - הרי הוני, כ 75 קילומטרים מדרום לאתר. עם זאת, עד לספירה של 1060, השאקאנים קיבלו עצים מהרי צ'וסקה, בערך 75 קילומטרים מערבה.

המתג מקביל להרחבת התרבות הצ'אקאית באזור ובניית בתים גדולים רבים חדשים. כריסטופר גיטרמן מאוניברסיטת אריזונה, מחבר המחקר הראשי, אמר ל- CWA (המגזין הנוכחי לארכיאולוגיה עולמית), "התוצאות מראות שהעץ הועבר לקניון צ'אקו ממרחק רב - ללא עזרת חיות הנטל, ההגה, כלי מתכת, או מסלול מים עיקרי, ורכש העץ היה תהליך דינאמי ומשתנה. הגעתם של עצי העץ של צ'וסקאן מסמנת שינוי דרמטי בחברה הצ'אקואית. אנו רואים כעת שברגע שחומרים מתחילים להגיע מצ'וסקה, התגבשותה והתפשטותה של החברה הצ'קואית, והצ'אקו שאנו מכירים כיום הוא תוצאה של טרנספורמציה זו. '

Martin Gray הוא אנתרופולוג, סופר וצלם תרבות המתמחה בחקר ותיעוד מקומות עלייה לרגל ברחבי העולם. במהלך תקופת 38 שנה הוא ביקר ביותר מ- 1500 אתרים קדושים במדינות 165. ה מדריך העלייה לרגל העולמית אתר אינטרנט הוא מקור המידע המקיף ביותר בנושא זה.

Frank Jamger

America had a long history of population displacements before modern Europeans arrived and built the United States.

There were multiple peoples and cultures who lived in North America before the primitive Amerinds encountered by European settlers. Some were relatively advanced, and were evidently destroyed and replaced by later-arriving Amerinds. Some of them were evidently (Proto-) European, and Whites may have arrived in America before the Asiatic Amerinds. Some of the Amerinds encountered by European settlers were partly Caucasian, and their Caucasian roots evidently extend back to antiquity. The "Native Americans" of today are not the original and true natives of North America: they displaced others before modern Europeans displaced (some of) them.

1 . Megalithic stonework culture. Hundreds of ancient megalithic structures exist throughout much of New England, extending into the South. Some are intricately designed and/or made of enormous stones somehow carved from extremely hard granite and raised perfectly into place. Some have sophisticated astronomical designs and orientations. Similar stone structures exist in Western Europe, South America and elsewhere, evincing a megalithic culture that once ranged across the seas. The Amerinds encountered by Whites did not use these stone works and could not account for their origins. The theory that these structures were "colonial root cellars" has innumerable holes. Their scope and complexity suggests a religious or recreational purpose.

2 . Mound-building culture. A great number of ancient mounds and earthworks are found in the Ohio Valley, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River regions the largest being the giant Monk's Mound pyramid at the Cahokia complex in Illinois. The mounds apparently had ceremonial purposes, perhaps as city centers, some evidently having astronomical orientations with one another. Similar mounds found in Europe along with similar tools and pottery, as well as skulls, relate this culture to Europe's ancient Beaker people (associated with Stonehenge). America's mound-building culture had several stages, including the Adena and Hopewell, that came and went suddenly. Within the mounds, many skeletons of large stature with Caucasoid skull types have been excavated. Amerinds encountered by settlers, who had little knowledge of the mounds, have legends of enemy "giants" destroyed in battle in the region, and there is corroborating archaeological evidence. See Allegheny/Adena "Giants", below.

3 . Michigan Copper mining. Enormous quantities of copper were mined in the Great Lakes area in ancient times, and evidently transported down the Mississippi River to the Poverty Point mound complex, where it was processed into ingots. Most of this copper is absent from North America, and curiously at this time Europe used far more copper than can be accounted for by its own mines, indicating transatlantic shipment. Analysis of copper ingots from an ancient shipwreck off Turkey revealed them to be highly pure, consistent with Michigan copper and not with European sources. The Amerinds encountered by settlers didn't use metal tools.

4. Anasazi Chacoan culture. The Anasazi Chaco Canyon-centered culture of the U.S. Southwest had sophisticated stone masonry architecture far more advanced than that of previous and subsequent Amerinds of the region. Their buildings and art had astronomical orientations, and the layout of their towns may have reflected astronomical patterns. They utilized artifacts and symbols, such as spirals and swastikas, similar to that of ancient European cultures such as the Celts and Vinca. A portion of its population, perhaps the elite element, was destroyed in violent ethnic conflict their buildings becoming defensive toward the end.

5 . Windover bog people. This 8,000 year old settlement in Florida "exhibited a civilization far beyond what had been previously believed that ancient Indians in North America and Florida would have shown", including finely woven cloth, tools, a pestle and mortar. Their DNA includes Proto-European Haplotype X it "looked European" according to Dr. Lorenz of the Coriell Institute.

6 . Solutrean-Clovis culture. Pre-/Clovis culture rock tools and carvings, dated 11-26,000 years ago, are found concentrated along the Eastern U.S. that are similar to Solutrean culture counterparts found in West Europe from about the same time, indicating transatlantic passage. Animal carvings similar to Solutrean have also been found. Glaciers and ice floes spanned the northern Atlantic Ocean for much of this time, facilitating ocean passage along the ice edge. Also, transatlantic voyage in ancient reed boats was proven possible by the Ra expeditions of Thor Heyerdahl. The oldest Clovis sites are near the Northeast coast, and Clovis rocks in cache sites to the west were evidently moved from the east. Clovis sites are rarer toward the Western U.S., and scarce in Siberia. In fact, there is hardly any sign of human activity in the Beringia region at/prior to the time of the first Clovis sites in the Eastern U.S.. Clovis sites are found in regions where megaliths, mound constructions, and European-linked DNA are also concentrated (see below).

The Solutrean Solution--Did Some Ancient Americans Come from Europe?
http://www.cabrillo.edu/

7 . DNA Haplogroup X2. The X2a branch of Proto-European DNA Haplogroup X2 has high frequency among Amerinds in Northeast North America X2 being nearly absent in East Asia. This indicates ancient European migration to America across the Atlantic, arriving in Northeast Canada and dispersing south and west via the St Laurence River. X2a is most concentrated among Algonquians, whose language has also been linked to ancient Europeans (see below). The small pocket of X2e2 in Russian Altai is not ancestral to Amerind X2a.

8 . DNA Haplogroup R1. Proto-European DNA Haplogroup R1 has high frequency among Amerinds in Northeast and Eastern North America R1 being nearly absent in East Asia. This indicates ancient European migration to America across the Atlantic, arriving in Northeast Canada and dispersing south. As with X2a, R1 is most concentrated among among Algonquians, most of all the Caucasoid-looking Chippewa (Ojibwa), also associated with the ancient copper miners. More broadly, R1(b) is linked to an ancient seafaring, stone-working culture, that evidently spread out from the Mediterranean Sea to the Americas (see below) and the Pacific.

Solutrean hypothesis: genetics, the mammoth in the room Y Chromosome section.
https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10871/17123/SH%20Mammoth%20in%20the%20Room%20FINAL%20with%20figures.pdf
Distribution of Y Chromosomes Among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan
Population History Figure 2b. Frequency of Haplogroup R in North America.
http://usmex.ucsd.edu/assets/022/10143.pdf
K = 26 admixture analysis of Amerindians and Mestizos.
https://genetiker.wordpress.com/2013/10/27/k-26-admixture-analysis-of-amerindians-and-mestizos/
Genetic Evidence for Paleolithic Exploration of the Americas by Europeans during the Ice Age.
https://grahamhancock.com/harveyb1/
Eske Willerslev is an anti-White propagandist.
https://genetiker.wordpress.com/2015/02/06/eske-willerslev-is-an-anti-white-propagandist/

9 . Allegheny/Adena "Giants". Ancient large skeletons associated with Adena mound-builders and related cultures have been found across the Ohio Valley, the South, and Northeast America. Copper attire, armor, jewelry and tools are typically found with them. Many Amerind tribes have legends of White "giants", and their existence was formerly well known and accepted by American scholars, including Abraham Lincoln but a concerted effort has been made to dismiss the evidence. These skeletons were not only large, but heavy set with Proto-European type skulls (see below), distinguishing them from Amerinds of their era. Amerind legend reports an Allegewi tribe of "giants" whom they massacred in warfare, a remnant driven into New England. The legend is corroborated by mass killing sites of large skeletons. Later grave sites indicate that the Allegewi survived for centuries as an elite ethnic within the Adena and later Hopewell cultures.

See also the sources for the next section.

10 . Proto-European skulls. Skulls of the Allegheny "giants" discussed above and other ancient skulls found in North America have Proto-European characteristics that distinguish them from Amerinds. In addition to greater size, characteristics include greater vertical and frontal diameter (brachycranic shape), greater cranial capacity, large brow ridges, greater facial angle, a wide jawbone, and double rows of teeth. The skulls are similar to those of the ancient European Beaker People, having Dinaric and Cro-Magnon traits. A 9,400 year old skeleton discovered in Spirit Cave also had a Caucasoid skull.

11 . Language and inscriptions. The Algonquian language has many words, particularly place names, similar to Gaelic and ancient Gaulish, ancestral tongue of the Celts and Basques. These people, like the Algonquians, are also carriers of Haplogroups X2 (e.g. Orkney) and R1. This indicates an ancient connection between these peoples. Relationships have also been found between Algonquian and Old Norse, indicating an ancient Scandinavian connection. Many ancient petroglyphs have been found on stones in the North American Northeast and South. Some appear to be Viking runes others, a form of Celtic Iberian ogam, indicating a connection with ancient Celts and seafaring Phoenicians. Some are found in association with the ancient copper mines (see above).

Ancient America section: New England's Celtic Place Names.
http://users.on.net/

12 . Natives of Caucasian appearance. Some Amerinds encountered by White settlers had a Caucasoid-like appearance, indicating some intermixture with Whites in their past. Zuni (Pueblo) and Pima Amerinds of the Chaco Canyon region exhibit Caucasoid traits, as do Algonquians having Haplogroup X2a. The mysterious Mandan tribe of North Dakota was reported to have a sizable minority of blond-haired, blue-eyed individuals, with more advanced technology than other Amerinds. Amerind individuals with Caucasoid-like appearance can be seen in old photos of tribes such as the Ojibwa (R1 carriers) and Shawnee (Algonquian). A mummy having red hair was found in a Kentucky cave in 1813.

13 . Amerind legends of Whites. Many Amerind tribes have legends of Whites in North America's past these legends conclude with an account of how the 'wicked' whites were genocided. The Choctaws, Lenapes, Comanches, Navajos, Shawnees, and others have legends of tall white "giants", called Allegewi, Nahullo, etc., who got in their way and had to be killed off to the last man. The Paiutes remember a nasty red-haired race they called the Si-Te-Cah, whom they managed to trap in Lovelock Cave and massacre. The Cherokees have legends of a pale "moon-eyed people", whom they managed to get rid of.

14 . Whites in South America. There is conclusive evidence of ancient Whites in South America these Whites were likely seafarers who also reached North America. As in the U.S., there is ample evidence of former civilizations more advanced than subsequent Amerinds, e.g. architectural wonders such as Kuellap, Machu Picchu, and Tiwanaku. In SA, there is clear biological evidence of White founders. Local Amerinds of the region, particularly the blondish Chachapoyas, have ancient Caucasian ancestry (Haplogroups I-M26 and R1b), as do their ancient mummies. There are large numbers of distinctly White mummies associated with classic cultures such as the Chachapoya, Nazca, Paracas, Chinchorro, Wari, and Moche. They have red/blond hair types, Caucasoid skull shapes, European blood types A and B, and ancient European DNA (Gravettian and Aurignacian). Found with them are rock carvings, statues, pottery and various art depicting these Whites, having White visages, blue eyes, and beards (lacked by Amerinds). Cultural similarities between ancient Peruvians and Egyptians include pyramids and megalithic architecture, astronomy, mummies, jewelry, skull shaping, art and symbols, and reed boats. A Phoenician rock inscription was found on Palpa Mountain near the surveying marvels of the Nazca desert. Naturally, the physical evidence is mirrored by Amerind legends of White culture-bearers who built these civilizations of Viracocha, Kukulkan, and Quetzalcoatl. Murals found in Chichen Itza, Yucatan indicate the likely fate of these Whites: they depict White men being captured and executed by dark men, a few escaping in boats.

14 Reasons for White Pride in America

It is time for White Americans to fight back, to save our great people and nation.

The mantra of the destroyers.

"The United States was founded on genocide and built on the backs of slaves."

. is nonsense, as I will demonstrate.


1 . The United States, a nation renowned for individual rights and freedom, was created by Whites for their posterity.

The United States, a nation world-renowned for its individual rights, freedom, prosperity and generosity, was built by the ingenuity and work of white pioneers who carried over values and traditions of Europe. The Founding Fathers recognized the U.S. as a White nation and citizenship was originally limited to Whites [1] . It remained about 90% White until the madness of the Cultural Marxist revolution of the 1960's [2] . Our great nation is infinitely more precious than the mere land it sits upon.

2 . White America's excellent technology and prosperity has been a boon to the whole world, including the nonwhites living here.

The great technological and industrial productivity of the United States has benefited not only the nonwhites fortunate enough to live here, but the entire world that dreams of living here. American inventions or major innovations include the sewing machine, typewriter, telephone, records, cameras, television, computers, cars, airplanes, space shuttle, light bulbs, dishwasher, air conditioning, anesthesia, vaccines, hearing aid, defibrillator, heart-lung machine, and the artificial heart [3] . We've shared our technology far and wide, leading to greater prosperity throughout the world. Nonwhites fortunate enough to live here enjoy far higher standards of living than their kin in their own homelands, and they're in no hurry to go back.

3 . White Americans, including our dear ancestors- brave pioneers and settlers, have always been good, caring people.

Contrary to Cultural Marxist propaganda, there certainly was nothing evil about our ancestors, the virtuous White American settlers who built this great nation. We were the same good people then as we are today: honest, compassionate and generous. White Americans donate more to charity than any other people on Earth [4] . We've always been generous to the poor of all races, giving out free cash, medical care, education, and services. The maligned Jim Crow governments provided separate but equal facilities and services to Blacks, paid for by White tax-payers. Even White slave owners were remembered fondly by their former Black slaves for the care they provided [5] . Of course, Blacks and Amerinds receive high rates of welfare, food stamps, housing assistance, etc [6] . We've also cared for the land, protecting huge tracts of wilderness in parks and reserves [7] , and making great strides in minimizing pollution [8] .

4 . There was plenty of open space in America when White Americans came. We built a civilization from scratch upon wilderness.

Amerinds only sparsely occupied the vast area of the United States at the time Whites settled it, the majority of it being empty wilderness. This was partially due to tragic disease epidemics that swept the country, estimated to have killed 90-95% of the population [9] . Amerinds were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers to begin with, having low population density. There were perhaps one to two million Amerinds in the entire U.S. before Europeans settled it [10] there were estimated to be only 20,000 in all New England in 1640 [11] . Whites were mostly just peaceful settlers looking to start a new life for themselves, building homes from scratch on open land. They befriended Amerinds when possible, though sometimes their first contact came in the form of a murderous surprise attack. Whites had no interest in taking over the primitive Amerind settlements, though some forced relocations ultimately became necessary because Amerinds rejected civilization.

5 . Whites didn't want much from the Amerinds, who were Stone Age primitives who had created little of value.

Whites took very little from Amerinds in America beyond bare land. The Amerinds encountered were Stone Age primitives who didn't have metal implements, nor the wheel, nor a written language. What farming they had was primitive, making minimal if any use of fertilizer [12] . No major towns nor industry nor stores of goods were taken from them. They had none.

6 . Amerinds have been well compensated for the loss of land they occupied, which had minimal value at the time.

Amerinds have received huge compensation from the United States for their lost land, as well as ongoing benefits and privileges such as lucrative casinos [13] . The Cherokees were compensated billions of dollars for their "trail of tears" migration [13h] . It's not Whites' fault that much of this money has been squandered. They've also received the benefits of U.S. citizenship including loads of welfare, as well as our technology and civil institutions. Amerinds have also retained or received in compensation much land to this day [14] , their sovereign possessions, in addition to normal properties around the country.

7 . Most Amerinds were not the original, true natives. They replaced - often violently, peoples who preceded them, some of them likely White.

Previous peoples in North America, some relatively advanced, were replaced by the primitive Amerinds encountered by European settlers. Few if any of the so-called "natives" encountered by settlers were the original and true natives of their lands. Some Amerinds are part-White, and some of the displaced or exterminated American peoples of the past were evidently White see 14 Reasons Amerinds not true natives of America. Some aggressive Amerinds, such as the Pequots, Apaches, and Comanches [15] , had long histories of conquering other peoples [16] . At this point in history, there was no international law and people around the world took for granted the right of possession by the strongest. The harsh reality was that weaker Amerinds were going to be ruled by one conqueror or another, and being ruled by Amerinds is no picnic.

8 . Many Amerinds were hostile and cruel, and had a long history of attacking and oppressing other tribes.

Contrary to popular myth, Amerinds tended to be untrustworthy, hostile, oppressive and cruel. They attacked, oppressed and sometimes massacred other tribes. Some tribes, such as the Pequots and Apaches, had a martial culture based on raiding and exploiting other Amerinds these oppressed tribes gladly allied with Whites to fight for their freedom. Many Amerinds had traditions of making fiendish rituals or sports of extracting the maximum possible agony from captives before killing them, and their women were sometimes the most enthusiastic participants. Some of their favorite kinds of torture were skinning alive, cutting off all facial and body parts one by one and putting hot coals in the wounds, roasting people alive on a spigot, and spinning seated women around on sticks impaled in their anuses. They also liked to cut off body parts such as scalps to cannibalize or save as mementos. [16] Our kindly ancestors could hardly be blamed for disliking such folk.

9 . Whites never attempted to genocide Amerinds rather, they were sympathetic toward them. Warfare was usually started by Amerinds.

Amerinds were not genocided. There was no plan nor intention to genocide them. On the contrary, the majority of White Americans were friendly or sympathetic toward Amerinds - those Whites who didn't bear the brunt of their hostilities. Great efforts were made to assimilate them [17] . The myth of the noble Amerind living in harmony with nature is a very old narrative, that author Mark Twain ridiculed in his satirical essay The Noble Red Man (1870) [18] . It is of course true that many Amerinds died of diseases spread unintentionally [9] but the claim that Whites deliberately infected them with blankets is scarcely credible [19] . In fact, President Jefferson launched a 30 year vaccination program for them in 1801. There was sporadic warfare over the centuries between Whites and Amerinds, usually started by a surprise Amerind attack [20] . There are presently about three million Amerinds in the U.S., more than as many as White American settlers encountered [10] , and they still possess massive tracts of territory [14] .

1 0 . The actual number of Amerinds killed by Whites was relatively small.

Against the nonsensical claim of genocide, there are actual estimates of Amerinds killed in warfare and massacres. The U.S. Census Office in 1890 estimated that 45K Amerinds were killed in all warfare with the United States since its founding [21] . William Osborn in The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War. counted 7,193 deaths of Amerinds via "atrocity" by Whites between 1511-1890, versus 9,156 Whites killed in atrocities by Amerinds [22] . In comparison, about 500K Americans were killed during the U.S. conquest of the Confederacy, 1861-5.

11 . Amerinds didn't teach Whites farming and fertilizer use rather, Whites taught them.

Contrary to myth, Whites did not learn how to farm from Amerinds. Amerinds lacked basic agricultural technology that Whites had been using for centuries, such as metal implements for efficient tilling, use of fertilizer, and the wheeled cart. Squanto learned about using fish for fertilizer from Europeans amongst whom he had lived. Whites in Europe and Newfoundland had long been using fish for fertilizing crops, including corn. Amerinds, who were primarily hunter-gatherers, relied on shifting cultivation sites. [23]

12 . Blacks did not build the United States, Whites did. Blacks were only a tiny portion of North and West states, and only menial workers in the South.

Blacks and other nonwhites did not build the United States, in any sense. U.S. civilization from the beginning has been an outgrowth of Europe, not of Africa or anywhere else. The infrastructure, laws, culture, morals and values of traditional America are characteristically European-White. The U.S. was founded by Whites and created by White ingenuity. Blacks were only a tiny percentage (<3%) of the Northern and Western states to 1930 [24] , which developed as advanced as the Southern ones. Even in the South, Black slaves did mostly menial farm labor that the least skilled of Whites could have done, and low-wage free men did after the war. The overall economic benefit of Black slavery to the U.S. was minimal at most [25] .

1 3 . Blacks have been compensated for their mostly menial work. They would only have been worse-off slaves if not brought to America.

Blacks, who have been mostly menial laborers, were compensated for their work with at least basic necessities and care, even as slaves. Low-skilled workers, whether slave or free, whether in Africa or America, generally don't accumulate wealth, anyway. Black Americans would have been slaves in Africa whether Whites had purchased them or not [26] , and were worse off in Africa before being sold by other Blacks to be transported to America. Many White workers at that time were also essentially slaves and sometimes treated worse [27] . Former Black slaves generally recalled their former masters fondly when interviewed about their experiences [5] . Since slavery ended, they have received enormous transfers of wealth from Whites in the form of welfare, special education, law enforcement, pervasive anti-White discrimination in education, hiring and promotions, and healthcare and other insurance costs driven up by blacks, etc. [6,28]

1 4 . The Ethno-Masochist Left is pro-immigration except when it comes to Whites, who were good "immigrants" who gave much and took little.

The hypocrisy of the Left on immigration is astounding. They're all in favor of open borders and immigration for welfare-leeching nonwhites, but say White "immigrants" (pioneers, actually) who built homes from scratch on the American wilderness were wicked. The truth is, White Americans - unlike nonwhites - were super "immigrants" who bore a great gift: civilization. They were independent, hard-working pioneers who took nothing from anyone except in some cases bare land which they developed and made prosperous, and later compensated the former occupants. They did not wish to intrude into Amerind towns, to take over their neighborhoods or leech their sustenance. Modern nonwhite immigrants, on the other hand, intrude into White societies for that very purpose. Instead of civilization, they bring envy, demands for handouts and enforced equality, rampant crime, oppression of women and even Sharia law.


Friday, July 15, 2016

14 Reasons Amerinds not true natives of America

America had a long history of population displacements before modern Europeans arrived and built the United States.

There were multiple peoples and cultures who lived in North America before the primitive Amerinds encountered by European settlers. Some were relatively advanced, and were evidently destroyed and replaced by later-arriving Amerinds. Some of them were evidently (Proto-) European, and Whites may have arrived in America before the Asiatic Amerinds. Some of the Amerinds encountered by European settlers were partly Caucasian, and their Caucasian roots evidently extend back to antiquity. The "Native Americans" of today are not the original and true natives of North America: they displaced others before modern Europeans displaced (some of) them.

1 . Megalithic stonework culture. Hundreds of ancient megalithic structures exist throughout much of New England, extending into the South. Some are intricately designed and/or made of enormous stones somehow carved from extremely hard granite and raised perfectly into place. Some have sophisticated astronomical designs and orientations. Similar stone structures exist in Western Europe, South America and elsewhere, evincing a megalithic culture that once ranged across the seas. The Amerinds encountered by Whites did not use these stone works and could not account for their origins. The theory that these structures were "colonial root cellars" has innumerable holes. Their scope and complexity suggests a religious or recreational purpose.

2 . Mound-building culture. A great number of ancient mounds and earthworks are found in the Ohio Valley, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River regions the largest being the giant Monk's Mound pyramid at the Cahokia complex in Illinois. The mounds apparently had ceremonial purposes, perhaps as city centers, some evidently having astronomical orientations with one another. Similar mounds found in Europe along with similar tools and pottery, as well as skulls, relate this culture to Europe's ancient Beaker people (associated with Stonehenge). America's mound-building culture had several stages, including the Adena and Hopewell, that came and went suddenly. Within the mounds, many skeletons of large stature with Caucasoid skull types have been excavated. Amerinds encountered by settlers, who had little knowledge of the mounds, have legends of enemy "giants" destroyed in battle in the region, and there is corroborating archaeological evidence. See Allegheny/Adena "Giants", below.

3 . Michigan Copper mining. Enormous quantities of copper were mined in the Great Lakes area in ancient times, and evidently transported down the Mississippi River to the Poverty Point mound complex, where it was processed into ingots. Most of this copper is absent from North America, and curiously at this time Europe used far more copper than can be accounted for by its own mines, indicating transatlantic shipment. Analysis of copper ingots from an ancient shipwreck off Turkey revealed them to be highly pure, consistent with Michigan copper and not with European sources. The Amerinds encountered by settlers didn't use metal tools.

4. Anasazi Chacoan culture. The Anasazi Chaco Canyon-centered culture of the U.S. Southwest had sophisticated stone masonry architecture far more advanced than that of previous and subsequent Amerinds of the region. Their buildings and art had astronomical orientations, and the layout of their towns may have reflected astronomical patterns. They utilized artifacts and symbols, such as spirals and swastikas, similar to that of ancient European cultures such as the Celts and Vinca. A portion of its population, perhaps the elite element, was destroyed in violent ethnic conflict their buildings becoming defensive toward the end.

5 . Windover bog people. This 8,000 year old settlement in Florida "exhibited a civilization far beyond what had been previously believed that ancient Indians in North America and Florida would have shown", including finely woven cloth, tools, a pestle and mortar. Their DNA includes Proto-European Haplotype X it "looked European" according to Dr. Lorenz of the Coriell Institute.

6 . Solutrean-Clovis culture. Pre-/Clovis culture rock tools and carvings, dated 11-26,000 years ago, are found concentrated along the Eastern U.S. that are similar to Solutrean culture counterparts found in West Europe from about the same time, indicating transatlantic passage. Animal carvings similar to Solutrean have also been found. Glaciers and ice floes spanned the northern Atlantic Ocean for much of this time, facilitating ocean passage along the ice edge. Also, transatlantic voyage in ancient reed boats was proven possible by the Ra expeditions of Thor Heyerdahl. The oldest Clovis sites are near the Northeast coast, and Clovis rocks in cache sites to the west were evidently moved from the east. Clovis sites are rarer toward the Western U.S., and scarce in Siberia. In fact, there is hardly any sign of human activity in the Beringia region at/prior to the time of the first Clovis sites in the Eastern U.S.. Clovis sites are found in regions where megaliths, mound constructions, and European-linked DNA are also concentrated (see below).

The Solutrean Solution--Did Some Ancient Americans Come from Europe?
http://www.cabrillo.edu/

7 . DNA Haplogroup X2. The X2a branch of Proto-European DNA Haplogroup X2 has high frequency among Amerinds in Northeast North America X2 being nearly absent in East Asia. This indicates ancient European migration to America across the Atlantic, arriving in Northeast Canada and dispersing south and west via the St Laurence River. X2a is most concentrated among Algonquians, whose language has also been linked to ancient Europeans (see below). The small pocket of X2e2 in Russian Altai is not ancestral to Amerind X2a.

8 . DNA Haplogroup R1. Proto-European DNA Haplogroup R1 has high frequency among Amerinds in Northeast and Eastern North America R1 being nearly absent in East Asia. This indicates ancient European migration to America across the Atlantic, arriving in Northeast Canada and dispersing south. As with X2a, R1 is most concentrated among among Algonquians, most of all the Caucasoid-looking Chippewa (Ojibwa), also associated with the ancient copper miners. More broadly, R1(b) is linked to an ancient seafaring, stone-working culture, that evidently spread out from the Mediterranean Sea to the Americas (see below) and the Pacific.

Solutrean hypothesis: genetics, the mammoth in the room Y Chromosome section.
https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10871/17123/SH%20Mammoth%20in%20the%20Room%20FINAL%20with%20figures.pdf
Distribution of Y Chromosomes Among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan
Population History Figure 2b. Frequency of Haplogroup R in North America.
http://usmex.ucsd.edu/assets/022/10143.pdf
K = 26 admixture analysis of Amerindians and Mestizos.
https://genetiker.wordpress.com/2013/10/27/k-26-admixture-analysis-of-amerindians-and-mestizos/
Genetic Evidence for Paleolithic Exploration of the Americas by Europeans during the Ice Age.
https://grahamhancock.com/harveyb1/
Eske Willerslev is an anti-White propagandist.
https://genetiker.wordpress.com/2015/02/06/eske-willerslev-is-an-anti-white-propagandist/

9 . Allegheny/Adena "Giants". Ancient large skeletons associated with Adena mound-builders and related cultures have been found across the Ohio Valley, the South, and Northeast America. Copper attire, armor, jewelry and tools are typically found with them. Many Amerind tribes have legends of White "giants", and their existence was formerly well known and accepted by American scholars, including Abraham Lincoln but a concerted effort has been made to dismiss the evidence. These skeletons were not only large, but heavy set with Proto-European type skulls (see below), distinguishing them from Amerinds of their era. Amerind legend reports an Allegewi tribe of "giants" whom they massacred in warfare, a remnant driven into New England. The legend is corroborated by mass killing sites of large skeletons. Later grave sites indicate that the Allegewi survived for centuries as an elite ethnic within the Adena and later Hopewell cultures.

See also the sources for the next section.

10 . Proto-European skulls. Skulls of the Allegheny "giants" discussed above and other ancient skulls found in North America have Proto-European characteristics that distinguish them from Amerinds. In addition to greater size, characteristics include greater vertical and frontal diameter (brachycranic shape), greater cranial capacity, large brow ridges, greater facial angle, a wide jawbone, and double rows of teeth. The skulls are similar to those of the ancient European Beaker People, having Dinaric and Cro-Magnon traits. A 9,400 year old skeleton discovered in Spirit Cave also had a Caucasoid skull.

11 . Language and inscriptions. The Algonquian language has many words, particularly place names, similar to Gaelic and ancient Gaulish, ancestral tongue of the Celts and Basques. These people, like the Algonquians, are also carriers of Haplogroups X2 (e.g. Orkney) and R1. This indicates an ancient connection between these peoples. Relationships have also been found between Algonquian and Old Norse, indicating an ancient Scandinavian connection. Many ancient petroglyphs have been found on stones in the North American Northeast and South. Some appear to be Viking runes others, a form of Celtic Iberian ogam, indicating a connection with ancient Celts and seafaring Phoenicians. Some are found in association with the ancient copper mines (see above).

Ancient America section: New England's Celtic Place Names.
http://users.on.net/

12 . Natives of Caucasian appearance. Some Amerinds encountered by White settlers had a Caucasoid-like appearance, indicating some intermixture with Whites in their past. Zuni (Pueblo) and Pima Amerinds of the Chaco Canyon region exhibit Caucasoid traits, as do Algonquians having Haplogroup X2a. The mysterious Mandan tribe of North Dakota was reported to have a sizable minority of blond-haired, blue-eyed individuals, with more advanced technology than other Amerinds. Amerind individuals with Caucasoid-like appearance can be seen in old photos of tribes such as the Ojibwa (R1 carriers) and Shawnee (Algonquian). A mummy having red hair was found in a Kentucky cave in 1813.

13 . Amerind legends of Whites. Many Amerind tribes have legends of Whites in North America's past these legends conclude with an account of how the 'wicked' whites were genocided. The Choctaws, Lenapes, Comanches, Navajos, Shawnees, and others have legends of tall white "giants", called Allegewi, Nahullo, etc., who got in their way and had to be killed off to the last man. The Paiutes remember a nasty red-haired race they called the Si-Te-Cah, whom they managed to trap in Lovelock Cave and massacre. The Cherokees have legends of a pale "moon-eyed people", whom they managed to get rid of.

14 . Whites in South America. There is conclusive evidence of ancient Whites in South America these Whites were likely seafarers who also reached North America. As in the U.S., there is ample evidence of former civilizations more advanced than subsequent Amerinds, e.g. architectural wonders such as Kuellap, Machu Picchu, and Tiwanaku. In SA, there is clear biological evidence of White founders. Local Amerinds of the region, particularly the blondish Chachapoyas, have ancient Caucasian ancestry (Haplogroups I-M26 and R1b), as do their ancient mummies. There are large numbers of distinctly White mummies associated with classic cultures such as the Chachapoya, Nazca, Paracas, Chinchorro, Wari, and Moche. They have red/blond hair types, Caucasoid skull shapes, European blood types A and B, and ancient European DNA (Gravettian and Aurignacian). Found with them are rock carvings, statues, pottery and various art depicting these Whites, having White visages, blue eyes, and beards (lacked by Amerinds). Cultural similarities between ancient Peruvians and Egyptians include pyramids and megalithic architecture, astronomy, mummies, jewelry, skull shaping, art and symbols, and reed boats. A Phoenician rock inscription was found on Palpa Mountain near the surveying marvels of the Nazca desert. Naturally, the physical evidence is mirrored by Amerind legends of White culture-bearers who built these civilizations of Viracocha, Kukulkan, and Quetzalcoatl. Murals found in Chichen Itza, Yucatan indicate the likely fate of these Whites: they depict White men being captured and executed by dark men, a few escaping in boats.

14 Reasons for White Pride in America

It is time for White Americans to fight back, to save our great people and nation.

The mantra of the destroyers.

"The United States was founded on genocide and built on the backs of slaves."

. is nonsense, as I will demonstrate.


1 . The United States, a nation renowned for individual rights and freedom, was created by Whites for their posterity.

The United States, a nation world-renowned for its individual rights, freedom, prosperity and generosity, was built by the ingenuity and work of white pioneers who carried over values and traditions of Europe. The Founding Fathers recognized the U.S. as a White nation and citizenship was originally limited to Whites [1] . It remained about 90% White until the madness of the Cultural Marxist revolution of the 1960's [2] . Our great nation is infinitely more precious than the mere land it sits upon.

2 . White America's excellent technology and prosperity has been a boon to the whole world, including the nonwhites living here.

The great technological and industrial productivity of the United States has benefited not only the nonwhites fortunate enough to live here, but the entire world that dreams of living here. American inventions or major innovations include the sewing machine, typewriter, telephone, records, cameras, television, computers, cars, airplanes, space shuttle, light bulbs, dishwasher, air conditioning, anesthesia, vaccines, hearing aid, defibrillator, heart-lung machine, and the artificial heart [3] . We've shared our technology far and wide, leading to greater prosperity throughout the world. Nonwhites fortunate enough to live here enjoy far higher standards of living than their kin in their own homelands, and they're in no hurry to go back.

3 . White Americans, including our dear ancestors- brave pioneers and settlers, have always been good, caring people.

Contrary to Cultural Marxist propaganda, there certainly was nothing evil about our ancestors, the virtuous White American settlers who built this great nation. We were the same good people then as we are today: honest, compassionate and generous. White Americans donate more to charity than any other people on Earth [4] . We've always been generous to the poor of all races, giving out free cash, medical care, education, and services. The maligned Jim Crow governments provided separate but equal facilities and services to Blacks, paid for by White tax-payers. Even White slave owners were remembered fondly by their former Black slaves for the care they provided [5] . Of course, Blacks and Amerinds receive high rates of welfare, food stamps, housing assistance, etc [6] . We've also cared for the land, protecting huge tracts of wilderness in parks and reserves [7] , and making great strides in minimizing pollution [8] .

4 . There was plenty of open space in America when White Americans came. We built a civilization from scratch upon wilderness.

Amerinds only sparsely occupied the vast area of the United States at the time Whites settled it, the majority of it being empty wilderness. This was partially due to tragic disease epidemics that swept the country, estimated to have killed 90-95% of the population [9] . Amerinds were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers to begin with, having low population density. There were perhaps one to two million Amerinds in the entire U.S. before Europeans settled it [10] there were estimated to be only 20,000 in all New England in 1640 [11] . Whites were mostly just peaceful settlers looking to start a new life for themselves, building homes from scratch on open land. They befriended Amerinds when possible, though sometimes their first contact came in the form of a murderous surprise attack. Whites had no interest in taking over the primitive Amerind settlements, though some forced relocations ultimately became necessary because Amerinds rejected civilization.

5 . Whites didn't want much from the Amerinds, who were Stone Age primitives who had created little of value.

Whites took very little from Amerinds in America beyond bare land. The Amerinds encountered were Stone Age primitives who didn't have metal implements, nor the wheel, nor a written language. What farming they had was primitive, making minimal if any use of fertilizer [12] . No major towns nor industry nor stores of goods were taken from them. They had none.

6 . Amerinds have been well compensated for the loss of land they occupied, which had minimal value at the time.

Amerinds have received huge compensation from the United States for their lost land, as well as ongoing benefits and privileges such as lucrative casinos [13] . The Cherokees were compensated billions of dollars for their "trail of tears" migration [13h] . It's not Whites' fault that much of this money has been squandered. They've also received the benefits of U.S. citizenship including loads of welfare, as well as our technology and civil institutions. Amerinds have also retained or received in compensation much land to this day [14] , their sovereign possessions, in addition to normal properties around the country.

7 . Most Amerinds were not the original, true natives. They replaced - often violently, peoples who preceded them, some of them likely White.

Previous peoples in North America, some relatively advanced, were replaced by the primitive Amerinds encountered by European settlers. Few if any of the so-called "natives" encountered by settlers were the original and true natives of their lands. Some Amerinds are part-White, and some of the displaced or exterminated American peoples of the past were evidently White see 14 Reasons Amerinds not true natives of America. Some aggressive Amerinds, such as the Pequots, Apaches, and Comanches [15] , had long histories of conquering other peoples [16] . At this point in history, there was no international law and people around the world took for granted the right of possession by the strongest. The harsh reality was that weaker Amerinds were going to be ruled by one conqueror or another, and being ruled by Amerinds is no picnic.

8 . Many Amerinds were hostile and cruel, and had a long history of attacking and oppressing other tribes.

Contrary to popular myth, Amerinds tended to be untrustworthy, hostile, oppressive and cruel. They attacked, oppressed and sometimes massacred other tribes. Some tribes, such as the Pequots and Apaches, had a martial culture based on raiding and exploiting other Amerinds these oppressed tribes gladly allied with Whites to fight for their freedom. Many Amerinds had traditions of making fiendish rituals or sports of extracting the maximum possible agony from captives before killing them, and their women were sometimes the most enthusiastic participants. Some of their favorite kinds of torture were skinning alive, cutting off all facial and body parts one by one and putting hot coals in the wounds, roasting people alive on a spigot, and spinning seated women around on sticks impaled in their anuses. They also liked to cut off body parts such as scalps to cannibalize or save as mementos. [16] Our kindly ancestors could hardly be blamed for disliking such folk.

9 . Whites never attempted to genocide Amerinds rather, they were sympathetic toward them. Warfare was usually started by Amerinds.

Amerinds were not genocided. There was no plan nor intention to genocide them. On the contrary, the majority of White Americans were friendly or sympathetic toward Amerinds - those Whites who didn't bear the brunt of their hostilities. Great efforts were made to assimilate them [17] . The myth of the noble Amerind living in harmony with nature is a very old narrative, that author Mark Twain ridiculed in his satirical essay The Noble Red Man (1870) [18] . It is of course true that many Amerinds died of diseases spread unintentionally [9] but the claim that Whites deliberately infected them with blankets is scarcely credible [19] . In fact, President Jefferson launched a 30 year vaccination program for them in 1801. There was sporadic warfare over the centuries between Whites and Amerinds, usually started by a surprise Amerind attack [20] . There are presently about three million Amerinds in the U.S., more than as many as White American settlers encountered [10] , and they still possess massive tracts of territory [14] .

1 0 . The actual number of Amerinds killed by Whites was relatively small.

Against the nonsensical claim of genocide, there are actual estimates of Amerinds killed in warfare and massacres. The U.S. Census Office in 1890 estimated that 45K Amerinds were killed in all warfare with the United States since its founding [21] . William Osborn in The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War. counted 7,193 deaths of Amerinds via "atrocity" by Whites between 1511-1890, versus 9,156 Whites killed in atrocities by Amerinds [22] . In comparison, about 500K Americans were killed during the U.S. conquest of the Confederacy, 1861-5.

11 . Amerinds didn't teach Whites farming and fertilizer use rather, Whites taught them.

Contrary to myth, Whites did not learn how to farm from Amerinds. Amerinds lacked basic agricultural technology that Whites had been using for centuries, such as metal implements for efficient tilling, use of fertilizer, and the wheeled cart. Squanto learned about using fish for fertilizer from Europeans amongst whom he had lived. Whites in Europe and Newfoundland had long been using fish for fertilizing crops, including corn. Amerinds, who were primarily hunter-gatherers, relied on shifting cultivation sites. [23]

12 . Blacks did not build the United States, Whites did. Blacks were only a tiny portion of North and West states, and only menial workers in the South.

Blacks and other nonwhites did not build the United States, in any sense. U.S. civilization from the beginning has been an outgrowth of Europe, not of Africa or anywhere else. The infrastructure, laws, culture, morals and values of traditional America are characteristically European-White. The U.S. was founded by Whites and created by White ingenuity. Blacks were only a tiny percentage (<3%) of the Northern and Western states to 1930 [24] , which developed as advanced as the Southern ones. Even in the South, Black slaves did mostly menial farm labor that the least skilled of Whites could have done, and low-wage free men did after the war. The overall economic benefit of Black slavery to the U.S. was minimal at most [25] .

1 3 . Blacks have been compensated for their mostly menial work. They would only have been worse-off slaves if not brought to America.

Blacks, who have been mostly menial laborers, were compensated for their work with at least basic necessities and care, even as slaves. Low-skilled workers, whether slave or free, whether in Africa or America, generally don't accumulate wealth, anyway. Black Americans would have been slaves in Africa whether Whites had purchased them or not [26] , and were worse off in Africa before being sold by other Blacks to be transported to America. Many White workers at that time were also essentially slaves and sometimes treated worse [27] . Former Black slaves generally recalled their former masters fondly when interviewed about their experiences [5] . Since slavery ended, they have received enormous transfers of wealth from Whites in the form of welfare, special education, law enforcement, pervasive anti-White discrimination in education, hiring and promotions, and healthcare and other insurance costs driven up by blacks, etc. [6,28]

1 4 . The Ethno-Masochist Left is pro-immigration except when it comes to Whites, who were good "immigrants" who gave much and took little.

The hypocrisy of the Left on immigration is astounding. They're all in favor of open borders and immigration for welfare-leeching nonwhites, but say White "immigrants" (pioneers, actually) who built homes from scratch on the American wilderness were wicked. The truth is, White Americans - unlike nonwhites - were super "immigrants" who bore a great gift: civilization. They were independent, hard-working pioneers who took nothing from anyone except in some cases bare land which they developed and made prosperous, and later compensated the former occupants. They did not wish to intrude into Amerind towns, to take over their neighborhoods or leech their sustenance. Modern nonwhite immigrants, on the other hand, intrude into White societies for that very purpose. Instead of civilization, they bring envy, demands for handouts and enforced equality, rampant crime, oppression of women and even Sharia law.


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