Battle of Mansoura (1250 CE)

Battle of Mansoura (1250 CE)


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Talk:Mansoura, Egypt

This sentence from the article on the Battle of Al Mansurah would seem to confirm this derivation: "The name of Al Mansurah (Arabic: "the Victorious") that dates from an earlier period[30] was consolidated after this battle." Reference [30] reads: "Al Mansurah was originated by al-Kamil in 1219 as his camp during the siege of Damietta (Fifth Crusade). Skip Knox, Mansourah, The Seventh Crusade. It was named al-Madinah al-Mansurah (the victorious town). Al-Maqrizi, al-Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar, p. 373/ vol.1" TristramBrelstaff (talk) 12:01, 11 February 2012 (UTC)

Header has 420,000 but infobox 1,045,000. Quite big difference. Which is right? 82.141.64.235 (talk) 04:22, 23 July 2011 (UTC)

Mansura is a known city by ( The Most beautiful Girls In Egypt ), and that's true . — Preceding unsigned comment added by 41.34.56.87 (talk) 17:23, 14 April 2012 (UTC)

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The world of The Three Caliphs in

Note: This isn't an entirely serious thing. It's just the result of me being bored and having some ideas knocking around in my head.

This scenario hinges on the admittedly somewhat very unlikely idea of the Byzantines winning the Battle of Yarmouk and subsequent battles with the Islamic Caliphate, stopping their westward advance. The Muslims and Byzantines would then later engage in a alliance of convenience of sorts, agreeing to invade the Sassanian Empire simultaneously, and mostly stay on opposite sides of the Zagros mountains. The Islamic Caliphate would continue its conquest into India, converting most of the regions surrounding the Indo-Gangetic Plain to Islam very quickly, and the rest of India somewhat less quickly, and causing an exodus of hindus to OTL Indonesia.

At this point, the Caliphate attempted to continue eastern expansion into the mountains of south-western China, with some success, but the true conquest of China wouldn't come before the the indian Khaljid Dynasty usurped the Umayyads and created the Khaljid Caliphate in India. Along with sending the Umayyads into a death-spiral that would very quickly culminate in the Abbasids taking over the arabian caliphate, the Khaljids also further expanded the caliphate into Burma, the Shan Mountains and the Yungui Plateau, and even making it into Sichuan and the Tonkin Delta, briefly.

This rapid rise to power followed by an equally rapid expansion spelled trouble for the Khaljids, as regions in southern India and the newly conquered eastern territories began breaking away. These regions were Marathistan, Kerala and the land of the Telugu people, all in southern India, and the Dali Sultanate which quickly conquered much of the Caliphates eastern territories. The Dali Sultanate, along with the Sichuan Sultanate, were perhaps the most important states to break away from the Khaljids, as they facilitated Islamic contact with the middle kingdom itself, the Song Dynasty.

The Song Dynasty was already teetering on the brink of crisis when Dali and Sichuan became independent, for a new threat had arrived out of the north. The Tujue, the chinese called them. Turks. These hardened nomads were China's worst nightmare the barbarian's barbarians. They had smashed into the lands of the northern steppes, the lands of the Mongols. As the seemingly united Turks ravaged Mongol lands, thousands of the latter were sent fleeing into China. Not soon after their inital invasion, however, the Turks began settling down. The mongol exodus, however, continued, and became more organized. A mongol man by the name of Jamukha organized the mongols into armies, and started properly invading the weakened Song Dynasty. This invasion would eventually cause the collapse of the Song, and the rise of the mongol-led Yuan Dynasty in northern China.

Meanwhile, muslims were an ever-growing percentage of the population in southern China, and given that there were both many powerful merchants, as well as many of the lower classes (particularly in the western part of the country) that either were born into Islam or converted to it, muslims now held a substantial amount of power in the region. As the Song Dynasty collapsed, particularly powerful chinese muslims began creating a plot to carve out their own empire in southern China. A man by the name of Xuan Yan was named Caliph, but he was largely a puppet. Islam in China and her surroundings would quickly diverge from the islam of Arabia and India, eventually forming the sect known as Samawi Islam.

That explains some of what my ideas were here. I realise it isn't very plausable or thorough, but that isn't really the point. Feel free to ask any questions, though.


Culture

The Egyptian Arabic dialect spoken by Mansoura's population is a northern Egyptian Arabic dialect, with noticeable influences from the city's surrounding rural villages, each of which has contributed to the city's population over the years. There are some similarities to Alexandrian Egyptian Arabic in some aspects of pronunciation.

Mansoura National Museum used to be Dar Ibn Lockman, the house where Louis IX was imprisoned in 1250 during the Seventh Crusade. Displayed in the museum are the suits of mail and swords of the crusaders, as well as a collection of maps. Huge paintings depict the Battle of Mansoura.

The Mansoura branch of the National Library was inaugurated as the Mansoura Mubarak Library.

Mansoura is famous for its architectural style, especially the Shinnawi Palace (after Mohamed Bek El-Shinnawi, a member of the Wafd Party). It was built by an Italian architect in 1928. The mosque of El-Saleh Ayoub El-Kebir is one of the most important in Mansoura. It was built by a loyal servant of the Sultan and is located in Al-Sagha Street that separates "Old Mansoura" from the modern city.

Like Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said, Mansoura was home to a flourishing Greek community until the Nasser era, when many were forced to leave. Many of the older and best established shops and businesses around the city still bear their original Greek names. The first Old English school in the city was established on the site of the old Greek school in the Toriel area, one of the traditionally relatively affluent residential districts of the city.


Top ten things to do in Mansoura

Mansoura, the capital of the Dakahlia governorate and home to the famous Mansoura University, was named after a victory over France’s King Louis IX during the Seventh Crusade. Here are the best things to do in the city.

Mansoura National Museum

This building, previously known as Dar Ibn Lockman, is where King Louis IX was imprisoned after his capture in 1250. It still has his toilet and other personal items, as well as arms and armour of the defeated Crusaders. A series of large paintings depict the battle during which some 30,000 of the king’s men fell.
Port Said Street al-Mouafy Sq
www.fineart.gov.eg

El-Shenawy Palace

Built by an Italian architect in 1928, this impressive palace is one of the most remarkable in Italianate style outside of Italy itself. If you are interested in architecture, add a tour of the many villas of the prosperous Touryel area to any visit.
El Gomhoria Street

The River Nile – Damietta Branch

Mansoura lies on the Damietta Branch of the Nile and a stroll by the water or a boat trip is a great way to see the city’s waterfront, which is also home to a children’s amusement park. Across the river is Talkh and you can cross over one of the many bridges to visit that side of the city.

El-Sikka El-Gedida

Mansoura’s long main street is the place to go shopping thanks to many gold shops and clothes stores.

El-Gam’aa

The upmarket El-Gam’aa district around Mansoura University is the place for the very latest in fashion, as well as fast food outlets such as KFC, Pizza Hut and CookDoor. The El-Gam’aa Plaza Mall offers a wide choice under one roof.

El Baghl

Open 24 hours a day, this restaurant is a favourite with locals thanks to its delicious specialities such as foul and falafel.
30 El-Galaa Street

Al-Mowafi Mosque

Founded by King Al-Saleh Negm El Din Ayoub in 583 AH (1187 AD), this noted mosque on Port Saeed Avenue may now be hemmed in by modern buildings, but its elegant minaret remains as a landmark to history. Capitvating souk Al-Khawagat is nearby.
Port Saeed Avenue

Geziret El-Ward

These gardens along the river are the place to stroll and people watch or just sit and enjoy the sunshine. Find a friend who is a member of the Geziret El-Ward Club for a chance to meet everyone who is anyone in Mansoura, listen to the latest music, or just enjoy the sports facilities.

Al-Nasr Mosque

The largest mosque in Mansoura was inaugurated in 1974 by President Anwar El Sadat. The beautiful gardens around it add to its striking beauty and elegance. A renovation in 2007 has kept the mosque one of the city’s most prized possessions.
El-Gaish Street

Al-Khawagat Market

Named for the many foreigners who traded here in the 1950s, this market is the place for bargains in clothes, shoes and homeware such as pots and brass. It’s also the place to stock up for any upcoming wedding.


The Middle Ages

During the last decades of the 4th century ce , a new, powerful empire emerged in Mongolia, the political heartland of Central Asia. The Juan-juan (Rouran) had stepped into the place vacated by the Xiongnu. Chinese descriptions barely distinguish them from their predecessors. Their history is an incessant series of campaigns against their neighbours, especially the Chinese.


Mamluks, 1250-1517

To understand the history of Egypt during the later Middle Ages, it is necessary to consider two major events in the eastern Arab World: the migration of Turkish tribes during the Abbasid Caliphate and their eventual domination of it, and the Mongol invasion. Turkish tribes began moving west from the Eurasian steppes in the sixth century. As the Abbasid Empire weakened, Turkish tribes began to cross the frontier in search of pasturage. The Turks converted to Islam within a few decades after entering the Middle East. The Turks also entered the Middle East as mamluks (slaves) employed in the armies of Arab rulers. Mamluks, although slaves, were usually paid, sometimes handsomely, for their services. Indeed, a mamluk's service as a soldier and member of an elite unit or as an imperial guard was an enviable first step in a career that opened to him the possibility of occupying the highest offices in the state. Mamluk training was not restricted to military matters and often included languages and literary and administrative skills to enable the mamluks to occupy administrative posts.

In the late tenth century, a new wave of Turks entered the empire as free warriors and conquerors. One group occupied Baghdad, took control of the central government, and reduced the Abbasid caliphs to puppets. The other moved west into Anatolia, which it conquered from a weakened Byzantine Empire.

Saladin, whose full appellation was El-Melik En-Nasir Salah-ed-deen Yoosuf Ibn-Eiyoob, acquired his greatest renown by his campaigns against the Crusaders in Syria. The youth of El-Melik Es-Salih Isma'eel, the son and succeessor of Noureddin, and the consequent confusion which prevailed in his dominions, gave Saladin a fair pretext to occupy Damascus as the guardian of the young prince, and enabled him to wrest from him his kingdom. He thus considerably enlarged his territory, made himself master of a great portion of Syria, and continued to consolidate his power in those parts until the year 572 (AD 1178), when Philip, count of Flanders, laid siege to Antioch, and Saladin entered Palestine. Having encamped before Ascalon, the Egyptian troo|>s ravaged the neighboring country, and set. fire to Joppa, until at length Baldwin the Leper, king of Jerusalem, issued from Ascalon and gave them battle. The result was disastrous to Saladin: his army was totally routed, and he himself fled alone on a dromedary. After this, however, he gained some partial advantages over the Christians, till a terrible famine induced him two year* later to conclude a truce with the king of Jerusalem and to retire to Egypt.

Saladin departed from Egypt (a.h. 578) to prosecute a war witii the Crusaders in which neither side desired peace. Saladin encamped at Tiberias and ravaged the territory of the Franks he then besieged Beyroot, but in vain and thence turned his arms against Mesopotamia and subdued the country, but the city of Mosul successfully resisted him. In the mean while, the Crusaders contented themselves with miserable forays across the enemy's liorders, and made no serious preparations for the return of their redoubtable antagonist.

In the year 582 (1186) war again broke out lietwcen Saladin and the Crusaders. The sultan had respected a truce into which he had entered with Baldwin the Leper. The capture by the latter of a rich caravan enraged Saladin, who despatched orders to all his lieutenants and vassals, summoning them to assist in the " Holy War." Saladin approached in person at the head of an army of 80,000 men and the Christians with their whole force en countered him on the shore of the Lake of Tiberias. The result of the battle which ensued was the heaviest blow which had yet fallen on the Crusaders. Tiberias, Ptolemai's (Acre), Nabulus, Jericho, Kamleh, Csesarea, Arsoor, Joppa, Beyroot, and many other places successively fell into the hands of the conqueror. Tyre resisted his attacks but Ascalon surrendered on favorable terms, and the fall of Jerusalem crowned these victories. The glory acquired by Saladin, and the famous campaigns of Cceur de Lion, have rendered the Third Crusade the most memorable in historv, and shed a lustre on the arms of both Muslims and Christians greater than they ever attained in those wars, either before or afterwards.

Saladin died about a year after the conclusion of peace (a.h. 589 or 1193 of our era) at Damascus, at the age of fifty-seven years. Ambition and religious zeal appear to have been his ruling passions he was courageous, magnanimous, and merciful, possessed of remarkable military talents and great control over himself. His generosity to the vanquished and his faithful observance of his passed word are lauded by the historians of the Crusades the former brought on him much obloquy among his own fierce soldiers, and is a trait in his character which is worthy of note in the annals of a time when this virtue was extremely rare.

The Mamluks had already established themselves in Egypt and were able to establish their own empire because the Mongols destroyed the Abbasid caliphate. In 1258 the Mongol invaders put to death the last Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. The following year, a Mongol army of as many as 120,000 men commanded by Hulagu Khan crossed the Euphrates and entered Syria. Meanwhile, in Egypt the last Ayyubid sultan had died in 1250, and political control of the state had passed to the Mamluk guards whose generals seized the sultanate. In 1258, soon after the news of the Mongol entry into Syria had reached Egypt, the Turkish Mamluk Qutuz declared himself sultan and organized the successful military resistance to the Mongol advance. The decisive battle was fought in 1260 at Ayn Jalut in Palestine, where Qutuz's forces defeated the Mongol army.

An important role in the fighting was played by Baybars I, who shortly afterwards assassinated Qutuz and was chosen sultan. Baybars I (1260-77) was the real founder of the Mamluk Empire. He came from the elite corps of Turkish Mamluks, the Bahriyyah, socalled because they were garrisoned on the island of Rawdah on the Nile River. Baybars I established his rule firmly in Syria, forcing the Mongols back to their Iraqi territories.

At the end of the fourteenth century, power passed from the original Turkish elite, the Bahriyyah Mamluks, to Circassians, whom the Turkish Mamluk sultans had in their turn recruited as slave soldiers. Between 1260 and 1517, Mamluk sultans of TurcoCircassian origin ruled an empire that stretched from Egypt to Syria and included the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. As "shadow caliphs," the Mamluk sultans organized the yearly pilgrimages to Mecca. Because of Mamluk power, the western Islamic world was shielded from the threat of the Mongols. The great cities, especially Cairo, the Mamluk capital, grew in prestige. By the fourteenth century, Cairo had become the preeminent religious center of the Muslim world.


How Did Civilians Suffer?

White women and children were left to fend for themselves, and many became widows and orphans when one in five Confederate soldiers died.

In the countryside, armies destroyed and appropriated property, seized food, burned fences, and turned houses into hospitals. Governments, schools, and churches in their path were closed.

In Confederate-controlled cities, overcrowding, shortages, inflation, and hunger plagued everyone. Residents of northern Virginia, the Eastern Shore, and Norfolk were subjected to curfews, confiscation of property, and sometimes exile by occupying Union forces. The western counties suffered pitiless guerrilla warfare.

Free and enslaved African Americans were separated from their families to labor for the army. Free blacks saw their freedom further restricted as white southerners questioned their loyalty to the Confederacy. Some of the enslaved were removed far from Union lines to prevent their escape. Some families of those who did escape were abused.

The Plight of the Refugees

An artist observed the flight of refugees in anticipation of the advance of U.S. general Robert Patterson’s forces and both drew and wrote what he saw: "On the advance of Genl. Patterson in the direction of Winchester. Many Wealthy families of Berkeley, Clark, & Jefferson Counties who from their Secession proclivities considered it unsafe to remain at home, deserted their farms and plantations taking their Servants and such articles of Comfort as could be conveniently carried, and moved off up the Valley, beyond Woodstock of Harrisonburg. For some days after Genl. [Joseph] Johnson fell back on Winchester numbers of Carriages could be seen containing the female portion of a family, the Master of the House riding in advance with fowling piece or rifle slung to his back, such of the woman servants not left behind to take care of the property being sent ahead in a Wagon, the Males marching beside the Carriage each armed with a gun, as they say, ' to keep de d---- Yankees and abunlishioners from harmin de Ladies.'"

The Lees Lose Their Property

Once Virginia seceded, Robert E. Lee's family knew that Arlington, their home overlooking Washington, D.C., would soon be occupied. By war’s end, it would be lost to them forever. On leaving, they were able to carry away some family portraits and heirlooms, including this silver spoon that had once belonged to Martha Washington’s son. It is marked "T.T." for Thomas Tookey, carries London hallmarks for the year 1774, and is engraved with the crest of John Parke Custis (Mrs. Lee’s grandfather).

Many books were taken from the Lee library, and Pvt. Henry E. Rowell of the 1st Michigan Infantry even took their doormat as a souvenir. After the war, Selina Gray, a former enslaved woman still living at Arlington, wrote Mrs. Lee that "Your things at the time of the war was taken a way by every body."

"This Unfortunate Town"—Lt. Col. Arthur Fremantle

Winchester was strategically located at the head of the agriculturally rich Shenandoah Valley. Union troops occupied the town often. On May 25, 1862, Federal troops were driven out. One eyewitness observed "old men and women, ladies and children, high and low, rich and poor" lining the streets, many "weeping or wringing their hands over the bodies of those who had fallen before their eyes . . . others shouting for joy at the entrance of the victorious Stonewall Brigade." Virginia artist William D. Washington considered the incident a fit subject for this large patriotic painting. The town changed hands so often—around seventy—two times—that Mary Greenhow Lee "did not get up to see whether they were Confederates or Yankees."

Death

Twenty—five thousand Virginia soldiers died during the Civil War, and rarely did next of kin receive timely notification—if any. But when the battlefield was nearby, the horror of death could be quickly conveyed and especially shocking.

At her home in Richmond on July 1, 1862, Elizabeth Munford heard the thunder of cannon fire from the nearby battle of Malvern Hill, where her son Lt. Charles Ellis Munford served with the Letcher Light Artillery. She wrote her daughters that she expected to "hear from Ellis tonight." Late that evening, his lifeless body was brought directly from the field. Charles Munford, Sr., suffered a "dreadful attack." Following the funeral the next day, he consoled himself with the thought that his son died "standing up to his duty like a true born Virginian defending his home & his Country."

"Broken and Smashed"

In December 1862, a Union army of 110,000 soldiers was halted by 75,000 Confederates at Fredericksburg, a small community of 5,000 residents. Confederate general Robert E. Lee ordered women and children to leave Fredericksburg for their safety. They took refuge in churches, barns, and tents. Among them were Douglas and Anne Gordon and their three children.

On their return, the Gordons found "every room" in their house "torn with shot, and . . . all the elegant furniture and works of art broken and smashed." One ambitious soldier even carried off the Gordons’ heavy bronze replica of a European statue of Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, a sixteenth-century soldier-prince. The Gordons had acquired it on a wedding trip to Italy. The looter sold the statue to U.S. colonel Joshua Owen of Pennsylvania.

Less than a year later, Anne Gordon’s sister—in—law Anne Thomas overheard a United States soldier near her Baltimore home give such an exact description that Mrs. Thomas knew he was talking about her brother’s statue of Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy. Using President Lincoln’s physician as an emissary, she demanded and got General Order No. 360, which ordered the return of the statue to its owner.

The Federals Lose Patience

Countries at war, frustrated by dogged resistance and military setbacks, often become less discriminating in their targets and tactics. Confederate general Robert E. Lee called Union general John Pope "a miscreant" for ordering in 1862 that personal property (food, forage, animals, and other supplies) could be seized for army use that civilians could be conscripted for railroad, wagon road, or telegraph repair that civilians who fired on Union troops would be executed without trial and that "disloyal" male civilians would be expelled outside United States lines. Pope's reversal of the initial U.S. policy of conciliation was actually only a return to brutal warfare as it had been practiced for centuries throughout the world.

The whole southern economy that supported Confederate armies became an explicit target of war. United States troops left a ninety-two mile stretch of the lower Shenandoah Valley with "little in it for man or beast."

"A Fiancée of Three Years, a Bride of Three Weeks, Now a Widow"

Hetty Cary of Baltimore—said to be one of the most beautiful women in the South—escaped to Richmond in the early days of the war. It was there in 1862, at age twenty—six, that she met thirty—two—year—old John Pegram—one of Virginia's most eligible bachelors. The couple was soon engaged, and their January 1865 wedding was a major social event in the besieged Confederate capital. Shortly after the wedding, Hetty took up residence in the Petersburg farmhouse that served as her husband's headquarters.

After eighteen days of marriage, John was killed at the battle of Hatcher's Run. Hetty returned to Richmond with her husband's body, and exactly three weeks after their wedding, John’s funeral took place in the church where the couple had been married.

In a condolence letter to Hetty, Gen. Robert E. Lee wrote, "I cannot find words to express my deep sympathy in your affliction…. As dear as your husband was to you, as necessary apparently to his Country and as important to his friends, I feel assured it was best for him to go at the moment he did….We are left to grieve at his departure, cherish his memory and prepare to follow."

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Why was cavalry so effective against infantry?

I've been wondering, in medieval and ancient battles why couldn't infantry with melee weapons just hack at the enemy horses' legs and cut them down? Horses seem like a vulnerable vehicle to use in battle.

This is more of a science of war question, but I don't know a better subreddit to ask it in.

The answer is that cavalry really isn't all that effective against disciplined infantry, emphasis on disciplined. Generally. what we see when we look at ancient and medieval battles is that commanders who order cavalry charges into infantry formations who hold together and are bracing for the charge lose horribly. You use cavalry to flank, in "hammer-and-anvil" tactics (where your infantry forms the "anvil" against which the enemy force is pinned while your cavalry "hammers" the enemy repeatedly until they break). Cavalry is also used to follow up on a successful battle and pursue routing enemies. But successful commanders do not order direct charges into prepared enemy infantry formations.

The idea that cavalry was somehow completely dominant against infantry forces in the medieval era is a really outdated concept inherited from Sir Charles Oman, a very influential early military historian. Oman believed that it was the Battle of Adrianople that put the final nail in the coffin of infantry superiority. This view shaped much of 20th century military history, but has been pretty much overridden by later work. Let's take a look at the Battle of Adrianople to understand why Oman is wrong about it being a victory of cavalry.

Battle of Adrianople, 378 CE: The Roman Emperor Valens takes to the field to drive the Goths out of his empire. Valens' scouts observe the main Gothic army in its fortified camp, but fail to realize that the Gothic army has a large cavalry contingent that is off plundering for food in the surrounding area. When he begins the assault on the Goths, the Gothic cavalry finally returns and smashes into the Roman left flank, which had become disorganized during the advance against the camp. The Goths continue to roll up the Roman lines until they hit the Imperial bodyguard on the right flank. Furious fighting ensues as the Roman army is compressed more and more. The Roman reserves desert instead of riding to their emperor's rescue, and Valens is slaughtered alongside the bulk of his army. Though the Gothic cavalry played a vital role in the surprise attack and flanking maneuver, it is the infantry that performed the vast majority of the brutal hand-to-hand combat against the Romans.

Adrianople is not an example of the dominance of cavalry, but rather an illustration of effective hammer-and-anvil tactics. Thomas S. Burns argued in his 1973 article The Battle of Adrianople: A Reconsideration that the real significance of Adrianople "does not lie in any tactical innovations, for the victory was primarily infantry over infantry. Nor did the Goths utilize any new weaponry and actually fought primarily with captured Roman arms."* Instead, he considers the real impact of Adrianople to be that the sheer numerical losses of the battle accelerated Roman reliance on barbarian nations for recruitment, because to raise another field army would have weakened border defenses and garrisons elsewhere.

*The Battle of Adrianople: A Reconsideration, Thomas S. Burns, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte , Bd. 22, H. 2 (2nd Qtr., 1973), pp. 336-345


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