World's First Cloned Sheep

World's First Cloned Sheep


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On February 22, 1997, scientists in Scotland announce the creation of the world's first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. Alan Colman, one of the scientists involved, describes the genetic makeup of Dolly the sheep, whose birth on July 5, 1996, had been kept a secret for almost eight months.


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Dolly at 20: The inside story on the world’s most famous sheep

From incubation in a bra to an afterlife under glass, how a cloned sheep attained celebrity status.

Dolly, the first mammal cloned from an adult cell, was born 5 July 1996. But she was created five months earlier, in a small room at the Roslin Institute, outside Edinburgh, UK.

Karen Walker, embryologist, PPL Therapeutics: On the day we made Dolly, we had such a rubbish day.

Bill Ritchie, embryologist, Roslin Institute: It was 8 February 1996. I looked it up. We do know it was a rubbish day: we had various problems with infections and things.

Walker: It's a shame the building has been demolished, otherwise you could see the room in which Dolly was made. I use the word 'room' loosely, because it really was just a big cupboard, which, when Bill and I were in there, you could just get two chairs and the incubator in.

Ritchie: It literally was the cupboard. It was the storage cupboard at the end of the lab. When we got camera crews in later, they couldn't believe it, there was no room to shoot.

LISTEN

Reporter Ewen Callaway looks back at Dolly the sheep’s legacy, 20 years after her birth

Walker and Ritchie were part of a project at the Roslin Institute and spin-off PPL Therapeutics, aiming to make precise genetic changes to farm animals. The scientific team, led by Roslin embryologist Ian Wilmut, reasoned that the best way to make these changes would be to tweak the genome of a cell in culture and then transfer the nucleus to a new cell.

Ritchie: The simple way of describing nuclear transfer is that you take an oocyte, an unfertilized egg, and you remove the chromosomes. You then take a complete cell which contains both male and female chromosomes — all of our cells do, apart from the gonads. You take that cell and fuse it to the enucleated egg, activate it — which starts it growing — and transfer it to a surrogate mother. Hopefully, with your fingers crossed, you will get a cloned offspring, a copy of the animal you've taken that cell from.

Walker: Tedious is absolutely the word. You're sitting, looking down a microscope and you've got both hands on the micromanipulators. It's kind of like the joysticks kids use nowadays on games. If your elbow slipped, you could wipe the whole dish out.

A year earlier, the team had produced twin sheep, named Megan and Morag, by cloning cultured embryonic cells in an effort spearheaded by Roslin developmental biologist Keith Campbell. But on this day in February 1996, problems with the fetal cell lines they had planned to use meant that they would need another nuclear donor.

Walker: My memory is of flapping like a chicken, thinking, 'What are we going to put in?' because the cells we were going to use aren't there. The last thing you want to do is waste those oocytes you've got. We wanted to try something, at least.

Angela Scott, cell-culture technician, PPL: I received word from Karen to say that the cells they were expecting had been contaminated. They asked me if I had any cells that they could use. The cells I had were ovine mammary epithelial cells: we were looking to increase expression of proteins in milk. These were adult cells.

Alan Colman, research director, PPL: I had come from a background of nuclear transfer with John Gurdon [a developmental biologist at the University of Cambridge, UK]. He'd never been able to get an adult frog by using nuclear transfer from an adult cell donor. He'd been able to get tadpoles using adult cells, but he'd never been able to get an adult frog. I didn't think it would work with adult cells at all. But we had no other cell line to go with, so we all agreed that we'd use these mammary-gland cells and just see what happened, gain some experience. These were from a 6-year-old sheep — middle-aged for a sheep.

Ian Wilmut, embryologist, Roslin: This is something that is got wrong to this day. Dolly is described as the first mammal cloned from an adult cell. She's actually the first adult clone, period. She's often undersold.

Although cloned and transgenic cows would be more valuable for industry, the Roslin team worked with sheep for practical reasons.

Wilmut: Cattle are incredibly expensive and have a long generation interval. Sheep are much less expensive and much easier to work with. And we knew the reproductive biology. It was very likely that if we could make something work in sheep, it would work in cows. Sheep are small, cheap cows.

John Bracken, farm research assistant, Roslin: There would be 40–60 animals going through surgery [to retrieve oocytes or implant embryos in surrogates] each week during the breeding season. It's a lot of different sheep in the system, and that had to be very accurately monitored so the animals were at the right place at the right time.

Walker: Bill used to keep the embryos and oocytes — when he was bringing them back up from the farm — in his top shirt pocket. I didn't have a top shirt pocket, so I used to tuck them inside my bra. It was a way to keep them warm and fetch them back into the lab and get them into a proper controlled environment. I don't think inside my bra was terribly controlled, but neither was Bill's top shirt pocket.

Ritchie: On the day we made Dolly, I would have done the enucleation, and she would have done the fusion. That was our normal way of doing things.

Walker: I did the fusion on the day we made Dolly. Bill and I joke, that he's the mum and I'm the dad because, essentially, I was the mimic to what the sperm would do.

They transferred 277 nuclei from the mammary cell line — from a white-faced breed known as a Finn Dorset — into eggs from the hardy Scottish blackface breed. Just 29 of the resulting embryos were implanted into surrogate ewes. Expectations were low: it seemed almost impossible that an adult cell nucleus could be reprogrammed to give rise to a live animal. Most cloned embryos aborted, many even before a pregnancy could be determined with ultrasound.

Wilmut: The sheep breeding season begins in October and ends in February, March-ish. By Christmas, we had established pregnancies after transfer from fetal cells, so that was going well. If we hadn't done that, we probably wouldn't have gambled on working with what became Dolly, the mammary cells.

Angelika Schnieke, molecular biologist, PPL: I remember meeting Ian Wilmut in the canteen, and he was very sceptical. He said: “I would be surprised if it works, but PPL is paying for the experiments, so we're doing them.”

Bracken: We scanned all the recipients that had embryos transferred, and we knew they were important sheep. Every day that the scientists knew we were scanning, they would be very keen to know if there were any pregnancies.

Walker: I didn't go down to watch all the scans. But with Dolly — because we knew that those were cells Bill and I had put in — I had gone down on that particular day with John.

Bracken: I was just really pleased that it was a pregnancy. I didn't realize the real importance of it because we weren't really told. We just knew it was an important pregnancy. It didn't carry the same weight. We weren't thinking, 'Wow! If this progresses to a live lamb, this is going to be a world beater, or it's going to turn scientific understanding on its head.'

Walker: I'd taken a blank video up with me, so that I could show my colleagues. That video is sitting up in my loft, and to my shame, I have never yet transferred it onto DVD. I should.

Schnieke: I remember the day when we had the first scan. We always asked. And then we saw the picture and the scans. Then you just have to hope that it lasts and goes all the way through.

Wilmut: My memory is they were looking around day 30 or 35, so there's another 120 days [until the birth], where you keep on sighing with relief and hoping.

Just a few of the team members got to witness her birth.

Bracken: It happened about 4:30 in the afternoon. As soon as she went into labour, we called the Dick Vet [the Royal School of Veterinary Studies in Edinburgh] to get one of their vets to come out. Even though [farm research assistant] Douglas McGavin and myself probably had 50 years of experience between us, it just would have been unheard of if we'd decided we'd assist the birth and something had gone wrong.

Ritchie: We knew Dolly was about to be born, and I think she was showing signs of getting near lambing, and lo and behold I went through and there were bits of Dolly being born. There was a vet there, so she made sure the animal was okay and pulled the lamb out.

Bracken: It was absolutely normal. No complications whatsoever. She was a very viable lamb. She got on her feet very quickly, probably within the first half hour, which is a really good indication that things are normal.

Ritchie: I think I was jumping up and down when I saw that white face.

Scott: Karen was away at a wedding at the time.

Walker: I had given her the fax number of the hotel. I wish I had kept that fax. It said: “She has a white face and furry legs.”

Scott: I don't know what they must have thought at the hotel: “Wow, that's a really unusual baby.”

Wilmut: I was in the allotment. I had a phone call to say we had a live lamb. I issued an instruction that nobody should be there who didn't have to be there. Lots were curious. I obeyed my own rule because I'd got nothing to contribute.

Bracken: I'm standing next to Douglas McGavin watching the vet assist this birth, and I made an off-the-cuff remark to Douglas. I said, “You know what we're going to have to call this lamb? We're going to have to call it Dolly”, after Dolly Parton, because the cells are derived from mammary tissue.

Wilmut: Being somewhat puritanical, I might have been a bit worried. With hindsight, without a doubt it was a great name.

Bracken: This is hearsay. I never got told this directly. But I heard they had contacted Dolly Parton and said: “We've got this cloned sheep that's named after you.”

Wilmut: I don't know how the message came through, but we were told her agent had said: “There was no such thing as baaad publicity.” I don't know if that's true.

Over the next few months, Wilmut's team confirmed that Dolly was a clone of the mammary cell line, and wrote up the results. Her birth was to be kept top secret, until the Nature paper describing the experiment could be published in February 1997 (I. Wilmut et al. Nature 385, 810–813 1997).

Harry Griffin, scientific director, Roslin: Two or three months before the publication of the paper, I got to know about it. In terms of preparation, PPL were involved. They saw it as an opportunity to get publicity for themselves. We worked with their PR company, De Facto. We did quite a bit of preparation.

Wilmut: Ron James, who was the chief executive of PPL therapeutics, and I were cited as the primary spokesmen and given a bit of training by ex-BBC people, who first of all came up and fairly aggressively stuck microphones up our noses and asked aggressive questions, and subsequently did it very gently. We weren't approached in anywhere near the aggressive way they tried first, which was quite shocking. I'm sure it was worth having.

Griffin: We had everything organized. The calls would be directed to De Facto and they would try and organize some coherence in our response in terms of who got priority and who didn't. All this would culminate, we hoped, on the Thursday that the paper came out. What was that, 27 February? Clearly, it didn't.

Wilmut: Robin McKie at The Observer leaked it. He will deny the charge.

Robin McKie, science and technology editor, The Observer , London: I didn't see that stuff in Nature. I don't blame him for being angry, but I went to great pains to avoid the things that would get me to be accused of that. I had helped a couple of guys who were making a TV programme about genetics, and they said, “Oh, by the way, they've cloned a sheep in Edinburgh.” I didn't believe them, but I phoned a few people in the field, and one of them in America confirmed it. But I was very, very worried. I was saying something quite sensational, with absolutely no paper proof of anything that had gone on. I told my deputy editor everything I knew, and he made me write it. Then the shit hit the fan.

Griffin: Ian gave me a call and said he'd just been called up and told that The Observer was going to run the story on the Sunday prior to publication in Nature.

Ian and I went into the institute at about 9 a.m. on the Sunday, not knowing whether or not people could get through. The phone rang continuously. We had a bizarre circumstance where a phone started ringing in a cleaning cupboard. When I answered it, it was, I think, the Daily Mirror, who had somehow got this particular connection. About half past nine at night, we went home.

Jim McWhir, stem-cell scientist, Roslin: I remember coming in on the day after the embargo broke and there were several satellite vans in the carpark.

Wilmut: There were television trucks everywhere. I went and spoke on Good Morning America.

Griffin: CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, all there wanting interviews with Ian, wanting to see the sheep. It was chaos. I don't think you can ever appreciate the intensity of the media in full flight unless you've experienced it yourself.

McWhir: It was just pandemonium. Going down to the large-animal unit, it was just a forest of flash bulbs and reporters. It was quite amazing. I just turned around and went back to work.

Griffin: My secretary would put the phone down, and it was ringing immediately. One of the names I heard being mentioned was Harold Shapiro [then chair of the US National Bioethics Commission]. She said, “Ian Wilmut can't talk to you now, can you call back later?” Bill Clinton had asked him to report back within 90 days on the ethical implications of cloning. I overheard his name, and said, “No, we definitely want to talk to him.”

Colman: When you're embedded in a project, you have what you consider to be good scientific reasons for doing it. Everything we did was covered by an ethics committee. We had been through a lot of concerns about animal health. Our concern was more about that kind of reaction. We weren't doing it as a prelude to cloning humans.

Griffin: People in the media pressed this point repeatedly. We were accused of keeping Dolly's birth secret because we were contemplating cloning a human. We had our position clear on that: it was unethical and unsafe.

Wilmut: It goes with the job. You just have to explain this is not the case.

Schnieke: In Europe, it was immediately seen as a negative. “What have they done now and what could they do next?” We had police at the institute who explained what you do if there's a bomb scare. Packages were being screened for explosives.

Walker: I do remember Ian Wilmut's personal assistant, Jackie, getting phone calls after it all hit the press. She had lots of phone calls, some of them were a bit crackpot, from people wanting their dogs cloned. The sadder ones were those people who had lost children or who had illnesses themselves, and this was going to be a breakthrough that could cure different diseases.

Colman: Dolly seemed to capture the imagination. It was a furry animal. Having a name that was identifiable helped enormously.

Bracken: If she'd been seen as being an animal that was locked away, that not many people saw, that could have perpetuated more bad publicity. But I think, because of the openness, that people were allowed to go and visit her and be shown around, this did help in the acceptance of the public.

Griffin: She performed well for camera, and everybody could see she was a perfectly normal animal. Because she was accessible and photogenic, she became the most famous sheep in the world. Any marketing manager would have killed for it. In some of the pictures it's as if she's interviewing the media.

Walker: I took a photographer down to see Dolly. This guy produced a kid's party crown, a little gold thing. I said: “I don't think we should.” We were all very keen not to allow Dolly to become humanized. She was a sheep and that was it.

Bracken: Away from the media and the cameras, we tried to treat her just like the other sheep, not as a sort of celebrity, which she obviously became.

Walker: The first time she was shorn, they took the wool — which I have some of, actually — to be knitted into a jumper for a cystic-fibrosis charity. Have you seen her in the museum? She's behind a glass case now because people kept pinching bits of wool from her. At least I got my wool while she was still alive.

Dolly lived for six and a half years and gave birth to several lambs herself. But in 2003, she began to show signs of illness.

Bracken: It was Valentine's Day. I think it was a Friday. We knew that there was the potential for this lung disease to have developed.

Griffin: She suffered from a disease called jaagsiekte. It's a disease of the lungs and one or two other sheep beforehand had gone down with it.

Wilmut: They thought she should be X-rayed over at the vet school. They were surprised at the size of the tumour in her lungs. We debated, under these circumstances, how hard we should struggle for her to recover. Wouldn't it be kinder to just let her go? So we euthanized her. You are responsible for the welfare of the animals on your project.

A decade later, another loss struck the scientific team with the death of Keith Campbell.

Colman: Keith was the driving force. He was the person who did the important experimental work that sowed the seeds of the protocol we all used. Dolly would not have happened without Keith.

Ritchie: Keith was, I suppose, 'unusual' is probably the thing you would say about him. He was quite hippy. He drove a Volkswagen Beetle, smoked roll-ups, had long hair.

Colman: He didn't have a great relationship with Ian. They were very different personalities and often argued.

Wilmut: I don't remember rows. We would have had slightly different priorities sometimes.

It's always very difficult to divide recognition up. What was obviously the cause of some annoyance and some criticism is that he didn't get the first authorship on the Dolly paper. He did get absolutely all the others. There was a time when he said the Megan and Morag paper was actually more important than Dolly. He definitely was frustrated that I got an FRS (Fellow of the Royal Society) and ultimately a knighthood.

After a domestic dispute, Campbell killed himself on 5 October 2012.

Colman: Keith was a very good friend of mine and we used to go mountain biking in Scotland in the evenings after work. I spoke with him three days before he died. I was very shocked.

Walker: That hit me very hard, harder than I would have imagined. I hadn't seen him in many, many years. We were such a close, tight group at the time. We had to be.

Colman: I went to a meeting in Paris last January, where they had a posthumous award. They took a straw poll of how many people in the audience had been helped by what Keith had done, and a huge number of people put their hands up.

The techniques developed in the creation of Dolly were used to copy valuable livestock and make transgenic animals. But in biomedical labs, Dolly hinted at a future in which cells could be reprogrammed to an embryo-like state and used to treat human diseases.

Wilmut: The birth of Dolly turned the rules of development upside down, and made a lot of biologists think differently.

Jeanne Loring, stem-cell biologist, the Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California: That was the onset of cattle cloning, which is actually quite popular now. There's a tremendous value in being able to improve cattle, and this gave people another tool.

George Seidel, animal reproductive biologist, Colorado State University, Fort Collins: There are cloned bulls producing semen that's being sold. There's an Angus bull called Final Answer, he's got half a million offspring or something like that. So his clone is called Final Answer II, and you can buy his semen at half the price. My wife and I have a cattle ranch, so we use Final Answer II. Hell, it's the same genetics. But from a theoretical standpoint, the transgenic stuff is really much more important than just making copies. To make our first transgenic cow, we created thousands of embryos. It was a huge effort. A tenth of the money, a tenth the animals is what transgenics plus cloning could do for you.

Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer, Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Marlborough, Massachusetts: I was excited. Now we could hopefully apply the same technique — not so much for animals and agriculture — but for treating a long list of human diseases. What Dolly showed was the enormous power of that technology and the magic of the egg. There were factors in the egg that could take adult cells backwards in time and restore them to an embryonic state.

Shinya Yamanaka, stem-cell scientist, Kyoto University, Japan: My initial response was “Wow! It's like science fiction.” But it was not something I was planning to work on. Judging from the paper, the cloning process is very technically challenging. The next year, the first human embryonic-stem-cell paper came out. That's when I re-evaluated Dolly. I thought, at least in theory, we should be able to reprogram somatic cells back into the embryonic state so we can make ES-like stem cells directly from skin or blood cells.

McWhir: A result like Dolly stops people in their tracks, and they say: “Well hang on. If I'd have said that is impossible, what else am I saying is impossible?”

Schnieke: You have some experiments where it brings up your heartbeat. Dolly was one.

Ritchie: It's kind of like having children. I haven't got any myself. Maybe Dolly's that sort of child.

Wilmut: It would be wrong to say my name's known all the way around the world — but Dolly's is.

Nature Video meets two of the embryologists who created the world’s most famous sheep.


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What was the name of the first cloned sheep?

World's First Cloned Sheep On February 22, 1997, scientists in Scotland announce the creation of the world's first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. Alan Colman, one of.

5 .What was the name of the first cloned sheep?

Word Lanes >. Dolly __ was the name of the first cloned sheep Word Lanes [ Answers ] Dear Friends, if you are seeking to finish the race to the end of the game but you are blocked at Word Lanes Dolly __ was the name of the first cloned sheep, you could consider that you are already a winner ! You have reached this topic and you will be guided through the next stage without any problem.

6 .What was the name of the first cloned sheep?

Mar 06, 2021 · The name of the first cloned sheep was / पहले क्लोन भेड़ का नाम था. By Sheetal Verma March 6, 2021. March 6, 2021.

7 .What was the name of the first cloned sheep?

Jun 17, 2021 · Dolly, female Finn Dorset sheep that lived from 1996 to 2003, the first clone of an adult mammal, produced by British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut and colleagues of the Roslin Institute, near Edinburgh, Scotland.

8 .What was the name of the first cloned sheep?

Jul 05, 2016 · Dolly the Sheep, the world's first cloned mammal, is shown in this undated photo. Getty Images By Lily Rothman

News results

of twins. Pig: the first cloned pigs (March 2000). By 2014, BGI in China was producing 500 cloned pigs a year to test new medicines. Gaur: (2001) was

ewes named Megan and Morag were the first mammals cloned from differentiated cells. A year later, a Finnish Dorset sheep named Dolly, dubbed " the world's

3 .In re Roslin Institute (Edinburgh)

decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit rejecting a patent for a cloned sheep known as "Dolly the Sheep "— the first mammal


Study: Cloned Sheep Age Normally

Tanya Lewis
Jul 26, 2016

Nottingham Dollies THE UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM When Dolly the sheep became the world&rsquos first cloned animal, some researchers raised concerns that animals conceived using this technique would suffer health problems as they aged. But new research suggests that animals cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) age normally. Researchers from the University of Nottingham, U.K, and their colleagues measured the metabolic, cardiac, and musculoskeletal health of 17 cloned sheep aged 7 to 9 years old (including four from the same cell line that gave rise to Dolly), finding that the cloned animals showed no signs of disease related to the SCNT process, they reported today (July 26) in Nature Communications.

The finding &ldquois important . . . because Dolly was under the magnifying glass for a very long time,&rdquo Dietrich Egli, a developmental cell biologist at Columbia University who was not involved in the study, told The Scientist.

Nevertheless, “the cloning process itself is still associated with significant risks,” Egli added. Many clones never make it to term, and those that do often struggle to survive after birth. This study shows “those that do make it are fairly normal,” he said.

In 1996, Sir Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell, and colleagues at the University of Scotland’s Roslin Institute created Dolly by SCNT—transferring the nucleus of a female mammary gland cell to an unfertilized egg cell whose nucleus had been removed. Dolly suffered from osteoarthritis, and died at the age of 6 from a progressive lung disease. Twenty years after Dolly’s birth, SCNT has been used to clone more than 20 mammalian species, including human cells. The technique is one of the most effective ways to reprogram somatic cells into stem cells (as compared with that used to make induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs). However, it’s still inefficient, and many embryos cloned using SCNT don’t survive until birth or long afterward.

Campbell died in 2012, but his longtime colleague Kevin Sinclair of Nottingham and other scientists continued to study the cloned sheep. “We wanted to establish once and for all that cloned animals that survive and [make it] into old age are normal,” Sinclair told The Scientist.

The team has now conducted a thorough health assessment of 17 cloned sheep aged 7 to 9 years old, four of which were generated from the same tissue as Dolly, several years later. The researchers measured the animals’ musculoskeletal health, metabolic health, and blood pressure, comparing them with a group of 5- to 6-year-old non-cloned sheep. Sinclair’s team also conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans on the animals’ joints to look for signs of the osteoarthritis that afflicted Dolly.

Like the non-cloned animals, the cloned animals had normal blood sugar, blood pressure, and insulin sensitivity, the researchers found. While the team noted evidence of mild osteoarthritis in some cloned animals (moderate in one case), the sheep did not show any clinical signs of joint disease. The findings suggest that sheep cloned using SCNT appear to age normally, and are at no greater risk of joint disease or other chronic conditions of aging, the researchers reported.

“This study reveals that SCNT can generate relatively healthy sheep that seem to age normally [for the measured parameters],” Patrick Narbonne of the University of Montreal who was not involved in the work wrote in an email to The Scientist. Nevertheless, Narbonne added, “we have to keep in mind that the vast majority of SCNT embryos die before reaching adulthood due to a variety of defects that seem link to incomplete reprogramming.”

Some previous studies of cloned mice found evidence that the animals were more prone to obesity or early death, but the results were inconsistent. Furthermore, obesity is quite common in mice, Egli noted.

Today, SCNT is primarily used to produce cloned animals for agriculture, or—in the case of human cells—to reprogram the cells into a pluripotent state. Egli and colleagues are interested in using cloned human cells to produce beta cells to treat diabetes, for example.

“We do not need to think about these studies in the context of human cloning because that’s not the intention here,” Egli said. Rather, these latest findings in sheep suggest that “if we make stem cells derived by nuclear transfer, we should be capable to make any cell type of the adult body in a fairly normal way,” he said.

The efficiency of SCNT has improved significantly, but there’s still a long way to go, Sinclair said. “There’s still a concern about embryo loss and neonatal loss” in generating clones with this method, he said, but “those that survive to adulthood for all intents and purposes appear perfectly normal.”

K. Sinclair, “Healthy ageing of cloned sheep,” Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/ncomms12359, 2016.


  • A Javan banteng calf was successfully cloned from frozen cells using a cow as a surrogate, delivered via c-section April 1, 2003 then hand raised at the San Diego Wild Animal Parks Infant Isolation Unit. [1] It died due to an injury when it was less than seven years old, about half the normal life of a banteng which is an endangered species. [2]

Elizabeth Ann, a black-footed ferret female, was born on December 10, 2020, at the Fish and Wildlife Service's Black-footed Ferret Conservation Center in Colorado. She is a clone of a female named Willa, who died in the mid-1980s and left no living descendants. [3]

Injaz, a cloned female dromedary camel, was born in 2009 at the Camel Reproduction Center in Dubai, United Arab Emirates [5] after an "uncomplicated" gestation of 378 days. [6]

Embryologist Tong Dizhou successfully inserted the DNA from a male Asian carp into the egg of a female Asian carp to create the first fish clone in 1963. [7]

  • In 2001, scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat, CC (CopyCat). [8] Even though CC is an exact copy of her host, they had different personalities i.e., CC was shy and timid, while her host was playful and curious. [9]
  • In 2004, the first commercially cloned cat, Little Nicky, was created by Genetic Savings & Clone. [10]
  • In 2019, the first Chinese commercially cloned cat, Garlic, was created by Sinogene Biotechnology. [11]
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. Later it was transferred and kept at the Minnesota Zoo Education Center. [12] Three more cloned calves were born in 1998. [13]
  • A Holstein heifer named Daisy was cloned by Dr. Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named Aspen at the University of Connecticut in 1999, followed by three additional clones, Amy, Betty, and Cathy in 1999. [14]
  • Second Chance, a Brahman bull, was cloned from Chance, a beloved celebrity bull. Second Chance was born in August, 1999 at Texas A&M University. [15][16]
  • In 2000, Texas A&M University cloned a Black Angus bull named 86 Squared, after cells from his donor, Bull 86, had been frozen for 15 years. Both bulls exhibit a natural resistance to brucellosis, tuberculosis and other diseases which can be transferred in meat. [17][18]
  • In 2001 researchers at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, reported that 24 successfully cloned Holsteins had been monitored from birth to the age of four. All maintained healthy stats comparable to control cattle, and reached reproductive maturity at the proper stage. [19][20] Two of these cloned cattle successfully mated, each producing a healthy calf. [20]
  • A purebred Hereford calf clone named Chloe was born in 2001 at Kansas State University's purebred research unit. This was Kansas State's first cloned calf. [21]
  • Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2001. They were the first calves to be produced using standard cell-culturing techniques.
  • In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, Vitória. [22]
  • Pampa, a Jersey calf, was the first animal cloned in Argentina (by the company Bio Sidus) in 2002. [23]
  • An Anatolian Grey bull (Efe) was cloned in Turkey in 2009 and four female calves from the same breed (Ece, Ecem, Nilufer, Kiraz) in 2010 by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). [24]
  • In May 2010, Got became the first cloned Spanish Fighting Bull, cloned by Spanish scientists. [25]
  • In February 2011, Brazil cloned a brahman. [26]
  • A Boran cattle bull was cloned at the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi. [27]
  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. The first Peruvian clone was called "Alma CL-01". [28]

Sooam Biotech, Korea cloned eight coyotes in 2011 using domestic dogs as surrogate mothers. [29]

    , an Afghan hound puppy, was the first dog to be cloned, in 2005 in South Korea. [31]
  • Sooam Biotech, South Korea, was reported in 2015 to have cloned 700 dogs to date for their owners. They also reportedly charged $100,000 for each cloned puppy. [32] One puppy was cloned from the cells of a dog that had died 12 days before. [32]
  • Sinogene, a Beijing, China-based biotechnology company, was reported in December 2017 to have cloned Apple, a gene-edited dog, named "Longlong". In 2019, the first batch of monotocous cloned police dogs was born. [33][34][35]

In 1958, John Gurdon, then at Oxford University, explained that he had successfully cloned a frog. He did this by using intact nuclei from somatic cells from a Xenopus tadpole. [36] This was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells. [37]

Five genetically identical fruit flies were produced at the lab of Dr. Vett Lloyd at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada in 2005. [38]

Gaur, a species of wild cattle, was the first endangered species to be cloned. In 2001, at the Trans Ova Genetics in Sioux Center, Iowa, United States, a cloned gaur was born from a surrogate domestic cow mother. However, the calf died within 48 hours. [39]


World's First Cloned Horse Born

Scientists in Cremona, Italy have created the world's first cloned horse. A birth announcement appears in current issue of the science journal, Nature , NPR's Joe Palca reports. The horse, a European breed called Halflinger, is now the second equine species to be cloned. Earlier this year, scientists in Idaho cloned a mule.

Scientists at Italy's Laboratory of Reproductive Technology created the horse using a standard cloning procedure where DNA is removed from an egg, and the DNA from the animal to be cloned is inserted. The egg is then coaxed to start growing and then inserted into a surrogate mother.

Promotea, born May 28, is named after Prometheus, the character in Greek mythology who stole fire from the gods and gave it to humans. The surrogate mother was also the source of the DNA for the clone, making Promotea a clone of her birth mother.

Some conservationists hope cloning technology will someday be able to help save critically endangered relatives of the horse, such as the Somali Wild Ass and Koulan.

The list of extremely rare horse-like creatures that could get a population boost through cloning is a long one, says Betsy Dresser of the Audubon Research Institute.

Dresser runs a captive breeding research program. Every time a commercially-important mammal like a horse, cow, goat or sheep is cloned, she starts looking for ways to save related but far less common species, such as Przewalski's horse. This wild horse species used to roam the vast grasslands of central Asia, but now is only found in zoos.

Thousands of years ago, many different horse species were common in parts of Europe and Asia, but now there are only a few, and some of the most genetically important ones are no longer able to breed.

"There's a lot of animals that are not contributing to the genetic pool," Dresser says. "They are too old, too young. for whatever reasons they are not reproducing. Cloning can be a tool where we can bring that genetic material back into the population."

But as NPR's John Nielsen reports, there is much debate over whether, in the chronically underfunded world of conservation research, money should be spent on saving habitat, or cloning.


How Dolly the Sheep Changed the World

Ten years ago, the world's first cloned mammal was born. Dolly the sheep proved that it was possible to take a cell from a specific adult animal, and then use that cell to make a genetic copy of that adult animal. Dolly also suggested that, someday, it might be possible to clone humans.

Ten years ago today, in Scotland, a lamb was born. Dolly was the first cloned mammal ever born. It raised the possibility that if you could clone one mammal, maybe you could clone them all, including humans. NPR's Joe Palca reports on the implications ten years later.

The procedure for making a clone isn't all that complicated. You take the DNA from an adult cell and put it into an egg from which most of the DNA has been removed. You then coax the egg to behave as if it were fertilized. If it does, the resulting embryo will be a genetic copy of the adult animal. Put that embryo into a surrogate mother, and if everything goes well, you get offspring.

Ian Wilmut led the team at the Roslin Institute outside Edinburgh that created Dolly. Even though the steps are straightforward, Wilmut said, when interviewed ten years ago, that getting them to work was not.

Dr. IAN WILMUT (Embryologist, Roslin Institute): We transferred 29 eggs into a recipient (unintelligible), and one of them became a live lamb. So you can see it's a very exciting and encouraging result. The efficiency's are poor and there's a need for a lot more research.

PALCA: Dolly's birth came as a shock. True, scientists had successfully cloned amphibians, but the only success in mammals using cloning techniques came when scientists started with DNA from embryonic cells, which hardly counts.

Michael Roberts is a professor of veterinary science at the University of Missouri.

Professor R. MICHAEL ROBERTS (Professor of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri-Columbia): I think the real surprise to everybody was the fact that it came from an adult cell and that somehow or other this adult cell could be reprogrammed and then made to act as though it was completely youthful again.

PALCA: One of the Scottish team's key discoveries was to find the critical moment to extract the DNA from the living adult cell. Armed with that knowledge, scientists began cloning everything in sight.

Dr. ROBERTS: Rabbit, horse, cow, goat…

PALCA: Pigs, cats, dogs, mules and, oh, yes, mice were cloned, too. For some, it was just too tempting not to try applying the technique to humans. In 1998, Chicago physicist Richard Seed was among the first to publicly jump into the human cloning arena.

Dr. RICHARD SEED (Physicist): It was my objective to set up a human clone clinic, make it a profitable fertility clinic…

PALCA: Seed's plans caused a national uproar. But, in the end, they came to nothing.

Then there was the fringe religious sect known as the Raelians. Brigitte Boisselier made this dramatic announcement on December 27, 2002.

Dr. BRIGITTE BOISSELIER (Scientific Director, Clonaid): I am very, very pleased to note that the first baby clone is born. She was born yesterday at 11:55 a.m.

PALCA: But Boisselier never presented any evidence she really had a clone, and most people think it's unlikely she does.

So far, it's proven notoriously difficult to clone primates. It hasn't worked in monkeys and no one has yet made a cloned human embryo. South Korean scientists claimed that achievement only to admit later that their work was fabricated.

The Korean scientists weren't the only ones trying to make human cloned embryos. Several scientific teams around the world are still trying, but their intention is not to make a baby they want to make embryonic stem cells.

The ability to make cloned embryos means you could make stem cells tailored to an individual patient. These would, in theory, be ideal for stem cell-based therapies, since there would be no chance of immune rejection.

Dolly's creator, Ian Wilmut, has turned his research to this so-called therapeutic cloning. Wilmut is now working on ALS, a fatal neurological condition also known as Lou Gehrig's disease.

Dr. WILMUT: Since we've begun to speak about working on ALS, I've met a number of people who have the condition and it's a very unpleasant disease and there's nothing for it at the present time. So, as a non-clinician to have the possibility of contributing, albeit, something long-term to therapy, I find very exciting.

PALCA: One final note: why name the first cloned lamb Dolly? Well, the starting adult cell used to make Dolly came from the mammary tissue of a female sheep. Here's a musical hint, and I think we can leave it at that.

(Soundbite of Dolly Parton song)

Ms. DOLLY PARTON (Singer Songwriter): (Singing) Folks back home think I'm a star now when they hear my records play…

PALCA: Joe Palca, NPR News, Washington.

Copyright © 2006 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at www.npr.org for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR&rsquos programming is the audio record.


A sad farewell for Dolly the sheep, the world's first cloned mammal

ALAS poor Dolly, we knew her well. Last week, the most famous sheep in history was painlessly put down, aged six and a half, after she had developed an incurable lung disease.

“While we are very sad at losing her, it’s an experiment that turned upside down our previous view of developmental biology,” says Ian Wilmut, the researcher who created Dolly in 1996 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh.

A post-mortem revealed that Dolly, who survived only half her expected lifespan, had a lung tumour triggered by a virus. Wilmut thinks her premature death was unrelated to the cloning process &hellip

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