Hampton III APA-115 - History

Hampton III APA-115 - History

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Hampton III

(APA-115: dp. 8,393 (It.); 1. 492', h. 69'6"; dr. 26'6"
s. 18 k.; cgl. 475; a. 25", 8 40mm.; cl. Bagfield)

The second Hampton (APA-115) was launched 25 August 1944 under Maritime Commission contract by Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp., Pascagoula, Miss.; sponsored by Mrs. Harry Gilmore; and commissioned 17 February 1945, Comdr. W. H. Ferguson in command.

After completing her shakedown training out of Galveston, Hampton arrived Newport 20 March for duty as a training ship for pre-commissioning crews. She continued this vital duty until departing 7 May for Norfolk to embark troops destined for Hawaii. The transport sailed 19 May and arrived Pearl Harbor via the Panama Canal 9 June. At Hawaii Hampton embarked over 1,000 members of the 34th Construction Battalion and sailed for Guam where she arrived 6 July 1945. After disembarking her Seabees, so vital to the success of the island campaign In the Pacific, the transport sailed to the east, arriving San Francisco 25 July.

Hampton sailed from San Francisco 13 August, just prior to the surrender of Japan, and arrived Samar Island via Ulithi and Eniwetok 7 September. Joining the vast fleet carrying occupation forces to Japan, Hampton landed troops at Aomori Bay, Honshu, 25 September, and then returned.to Okinawa for more occupation units. During October she carried these troops to Jinsen, Korea; Chefoo and Tsingtao, China, helping to speed occupation of these ports and stabilize the volatile China situation.

Hampton departed Tsingtao for Portland via Okinawa and Leyte, arriving 28 October 1945. She then made two voyages to Guam as part of the "Magic Carpet" fleet, performing the giant task of bringing home the thousands of Pacific veterans. After returning to the Pacific coast from the second voyage 10 February 1946, the transport sailed for the East Coast, arriving Norfolk 7 March. She decommissioned 30 April 1946 and was returned to the Maritime Commission 1 May. In 1947 Hampton was sold- to Pope and Talbot Lines and renamed P. &T. Explorer.

Outcome and survival following primary and repeat surgery for World Health Organization Grade III meningiomas

Object: Despite an increased understanding of the biology of malignant meningioma tumor progression, there is a paucity of published clinical data on factors affecting outcomes following treatment for these lesions. The authors present the largest case series to date dealing with these tumors, providing analysis of 63 patients.

Methods: The authors identified all patients undergoing resection of WHO Grade III tumors at their institution over a 16-year period. They analyzed clinical data from these patients, and performed Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses to determine the impact of different clinical characteristics and different treatment modalities on survival following initial and repeat surgery for these lesions.

Results: Sixty-three patients met inclusion criteria and were analyzed further. The median clinical follow-up time was 5 years (range 1-22 years). The 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates following initial operation were 82, 61, and 40%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a marked survival benefit with repeat operation (53 vs 25 months, p = 0.02). Interestingly, patients treated with near-total resection experienced improved overall survival when compared with patients treated with gross-total resection at initial (p = 0.035) and repeat operations (p = 0.005). Twelve (19%) of 63 patients experienced significant neurological morbidity referable to the resection of their tumors.

Conclusions: Surgery is an effective treatment for WHO Grade III meningiomas at presentation and recurrence however, aggressive attempts to achieve gross-total resection can be associated with significant neurological risk.

The Symbolism Of The Crest

The ship’s emblem signifies the great heritage underlying the modern day USS HAMPTON (SSN 767). In our nation’s history, four military vessels carried the name HAMPTON. The CSS HAMPTON, a Confederate Gunboat, was the first vessel named HAMPTON. Other vessels include the SP-3049, a 48-ton tugboat, PCS- 1386, an anti-submarine warfare training vessel, and APA 115, an amphibious transport ship.

The crest’s four stars represent the four namesake cities: Hampton, Virginia Hampton, Iowa Hampton, South Carolina and Hampton, New Hampshire. They also represent the four previous vessels named HAMPTON. The warship in the foreground is the CSS HAMPTON, which patrolled the James River and approaches to Norfolk, Virginia, during the Civil War. CSS HAMPTON distinguished herself in battle during the Civil War, surviving an engagement with Union Ironclads in the Hampton Roads’ waters. She was eventually burned by the Confederacy to prevent the ship from falling into Union hands. The predominant colors of the crest are traditional Navy blue and gold.

The motto, "QUI DESIDERANT PACEM PREPARATE BELLUM" means "Those who desire peace, prepare for war". The motto is founded in the determination and spirit displayed by the earlier HAMPTONs and underscores the premium the submarine force places on the training and readiness of its ships. With its diverse arsenal, unlimited endurance and ability to participate in every facet of Naval Warfare, the submarine HAMPTON will proudly carry on the heritage of her naval predecessors, ready and able to go to war when her country calls.

Commanding Officer
Commander Christopher L. Stathos
United States Navy

The American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association

I will begin by describing the APA and the American Psychiatric Association, and I will then present their stances on the topic of homosexuality. The APA claims to be

the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. APA is the world's largest association of psychologists, with nearly 130,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students as its members. ( American Psychological Association 2014 )

Their mission “is to advance the creation, communication, and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives” ( American Psychological Association 2014 ).

The American Psychiatric Association (which also uses the acronym APA)

is the world's largest psychiatric organization. It is a medical specialty society representing growing membership of more than 35,000 psychiatrists … Its member physicians work together to ensure humane care and effective treatment for all persons with mental disorders, including intellectual disabilities and substance use disorders. APA is the voice and conscience of modern psychiatry. ( American Psychiatric Association 2014a )

The American Psychiatric Association publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) which is

the handbook used by health care professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders. DSM contains descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. It provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about their patients and establishes consistent and reliable diagnoses that can be used in the research of mental disorders. It also provides a common language for researchers to study the criteria for potential future revisions and to aid in the development of medications and other interventions. ( American Psychiatric Association 2014b , emphasis added)

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has been considered to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental. It follows, then, that those psychiatrists that make up the American Psychiatric Association, especially those involved in determining the contents of the DSM, are considered to be the authorities and experts in psychiatry. (For those who may not be aware, the study of psychology is different from the study of psychiatry, which is why there are two different professional organizations that study mental disorders.)

The stances of the APA and the American Psychiatric Association on homosexuality are discussed in at least two important documents. The first is the Brief of Amici Curiae for APA, American Psychiatric Association, and others given during the Supreme Court case Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558, which overthrew laws against sodomy. The second is the APA document titled “Report of the Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation.” The task force 𠇌onducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed journal literature on sexual orientation change efforts” in order to provide “more specific recommendations to licensed mental health practitioners, the public, and policymakers” ( Glassgold et al. 2009 , 2). Both documents provide citations of 𠇎vidence” supporting the claim that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. I will refer to the scientific evidence cited in the documents, and I will follow with an analysis of that literature put forth as scientific evidence.

It should be noted that the “task force” that produced the second document was chaired by Judith M. Glassgold, Psy.D., who is a lesbian psychologist. She sits on the board of the Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy and is past president of the APA's Gay and Lesbian Division 44 ( Nicolosi 2009 ). Other members of the task force were Lee Beckstead, Ph.D. Jack Drescher, M.D. Beverly Greene, Ph.D. Robin Lin Miller, Ph.D. Roger L. Worthington, Ph.D. and Clinton W. Anderson, Ph.D. According to Joseph Nicolosi, Beckstead, Drescher, and Anderson are all “gay,” while Miller is 𠇋isexual” and Greene is lesbian ( Nicolosi 2009 ). So, prior to assessing their discussions, the reader should note that those involved with this APA task force are not speaking or writing from neutral standpoints.

I will be drawing quotes from two different documents. Doing so will provide more evidence of the stance of both the APA and the American Psychiatric Association.

Ближайшие родственники

About Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton, III, (CSA), 77th Governor of South Carolina

• Hampton was one of only three Southern officers to achieve the rank of Lieutenant General in the Confederate States Army without any military training.

• Hampton was defeated in the 1865 gubernatorial election by James Lawrence Orr

He was the most revered man in the history of South Carolina, and yet he died an old man in near poverty.

Awarded with the Confederate Medal of Honor by the Sons of Confederate Medal of Honor.

To honor Hampton for his leadership in the Civil War and the redemption of the state, the General Assembly created Hampton County from Beaufort County in 1878. The town of Hampton Courthouse (later shortened to Hampton) was incorporated on December 23, 1879, to serve as the county seat of Hampton County. Across South Carolina many towns and cities renamed streets for the revered statesman. At least eight municipalities in South Carolina have a street named "Wade Hampton" (Beaufort, Charleston, Duncan, Greenville, Greer, Hampton, Taylors, Walterboro) and in approximately 47 towns of South Carolina are streets named "Hampton." Two high schools in South Carolina are named "Wade Hampton High School," one in Greenville and the other in Hampton. A residence hall at Hampton's alma mater, the University of South Carolina, is called the "Wade Hampton." There is a Hampton Park in Charleston and a Hampton Park in Columbia named after Hampton. In 1964, Wade Hampton Academy was charted in Orangeburg the school later merged with Willington Academy in 1986 to become Orangeburg Preparatory Schools, Inc.Statues of Governor Hampton have been erected at both the South Carolina Capitol and the US Capitol

Hampton's plantations included: Wild Woods Plantation in Mississippi, which covered 835 acres. In addition, he owned Bayou Place, which when expanded into Richland, embraced 2,729 acres Otterbourne, 1,354 acres Walnut Ridge, 2,529 acres and Bear Gardens, 2,962 acres. The combined 10,409 acres were worked by 900 slaves. In 1850 Wild Woods alone produced 5,000 bushels of corn and 453 bales of cotton. There were 177 slaves on the plantation. He and his second wife paid annual visits to the Mississippi plantations. Besides surpervising operations on all his properties, he entertained the many guests who came to Wild Woods.

His library at Greenville, S. C., contains ten or twelve thousand volumes, including about fifteen hundred on American history. The library fills two large rooms, and cost, probably, twenty thousand dollars.

Wade left all of his real estate in South Carolina to his daughter Daisy, who had been his caretaker. Son McDuffie received three silver racing cups and the remainder of his silver was divided among the three children.

"Hampton’s triumphant cause. That was, in his words, the “political contest of '76 in my judgment the most memorable ever waged on this continent, for home rule, for personal liberty and States’ rights,” concluding that “nothing can ever deprive me of the honest pride I feel that I contributed, in part, to the glorious victory won then by the people of my State.” No other South Carolinian possessed the temperament, wisdom, and moral authority essential to direct such a crusade. Leading his people out of Reconstruction was - in my opinion - Wade Hampton’s providential purpose, and certainly his greatest achievement."

Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterward a politician from South Carolina, serving as its 77th Governor and as a U.S. Senator.

Hampton was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the eldest son of Wade Hampton II (1791�), known as "Colonel Wade Hampton", one of the wealthiest planters in the South (and the owner of the largest number of slaves), an officer of dragoons in the War of 1812, and an aide to General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. He was grandson of Wade Hampton (1754�), lieutenant colonel of cavalry in the American War of Independence, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and brigadier general in the War of 1812. His uncle, James Henry Hammond, was a member of both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, as well as a Governor of South Carolina.

Hampton grew up in a wealthy family, receiving private instruction. He had an active outdoor life, riding horses and hunting, especially at his father's North Carolina summer retreat, High Hampton. He was known for taking hunting trips alone into the woods, hunting American black bears with only a knife. Some accounts credit him with killing as many as 80 bears. In 1836 he graduated from South Carolina College (now the University of South Carolina), and was trained for the law, although he never practiced. He devoted himself, instead, to the management of his great plantations in South Carolina and Mississippi, and took part in state politics. He was elected to the South Carolina General Assembly in 1852 and served as a Senator from 1858 to 1861. Hampton's father died in 1858 and the son inherited a vast fortune, the plantations, and one of the largest collections of slaves in the South.

Although his views were conservative concerning the issues of secession and slavery, and he had opposed the division of the Union as a legislator, at the start of the Civil War, Hampton was loyal to his home state. He resigned from the Senate and enlisted as a private in the South Carolina Militia however, the governor of South Carolina insisted that Hampton accept a colonel's commission, even though he had no military experience at all. Hampton organized and partially financed the unit known as "Hampton's Legion", which consisted of six companies of infantry, four companies of cavalry, and one battery of artillery. He personally financed all of the weapons for the Legion.

Despite his lack of military experience and his relatively advanced age of 42, Hampton was a natural cavalryman𠅋rave, audacious, and a superb horseman. Some say he merely lacked some of the flamboyance of his contemporaries, such as his eventual commander, J.E.B. Stuart, age 30. He was one of only three officers without previous military experience (the other two being Nathan Bedford Forrest and Richard Taylor, son of President Zachary Taylor) to achieve the rank of lieutenant general in the Confederate service.

Hampton first saw combat in July 1861, at the First Battle of Bull Run, where he deployed his Legion at a decisive moment, giving the brigade of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson time to reach the field. He was wounded the first of five times during the war when he led a charge against a federal artillery position, and a bullet creased his forehead.

On May 23, 1862, Hampton was promoted to brigadier general, while commanding a brigade in Stonewall Jackson's division in the Army of Northern Virginia. In the Peninsula Campaign, at the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31, 1862, he was severely wounded in the foot, but remained on his horse while it was being treated, still under fire. Hampton returned to duty in time to lead a brigade at the end of the Seven Days Battles, although the brigade was not significantly engaged.

After the Peninsula Campaign, General Robert E. Lee reorganized his cavalry forces as a division under the command of J.E.B. Stuart, who selected Hampton as his senior subordinate, to command one of two cavalry brigades. During the winter of 1862, around the Battle of Fredericksburg, Hampton led a series of cavalry raids behind enemy lines and captured numerous prisoners and supplies without suffering any casualties, earning a commendation from General Lee. During the Battle of Chancellorsville, Hampton's brigade was stationed south of the James River, so saw no action.

In the Gettysburg Campaign, Hampton was slightly wounded in the Battle of Brandy Station, the war's largest cavalry battle. His brigade then participated in Stuart's wild adventure to the northeast, swinging around the Union army and losing contact with Lee. Stuart and Hampton reached the vicinity of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, late on July 2, 1863. While just outside of town, Hampton was confronted by a Union cavalryman pointing a rifle at him from 200 yards. Hampton charged the trooper before he could fire his rifle, but another trooper blindsided Hampton with a saber cut to the back of his head. On July 3, Hampton led the cavalry attack to the east of Gettysburg, attempting to disrupt the Union rear areas, but colliding with Union cavalry. He received two more saber cuts to the front of his head, but continued fighting until he was wounded again with a piece of shrapnel to the hip. He was carried back to Virginia in the same ambulance as General John Bell Hood.

On August 3, 1863, Hampton was promoted to major general and received command of a cavalry division. His wounds from Gettysburg were slow in healing, so he did not actually return to duty until November. During the Overland Campaign of 1864, Stuart was killed at the Battle of Yellow Tavern and Hampton was given command of the Cavalry Corps on August 11, 1864. He distinguished himself in his new role at the bloody Battle of Trevilian Station, defeating Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan's cavalry, and in fact, lost no cavalry battles for the remainder of the war. In September, Hampton conducted what became known as the "Beefsteak Raid", where his troopers captured over 2400 head of cattle and over 300 prisoners behind enemy lines.

In October 1864, near Petersburg, Virginia, Hampton sent his son, Thomas Preston, a lieutenant and an aide to his father, to deliver a message. Shortly afterward, Hampton and his other son, Wade IV, rode in the same direction. Before traveling 200 yards, they came across Preston's body, and as young Wade dismounted, he was also shot. Thomas Preston died from his wound.

While Lee's army was bottled up in the Siege of Petersburg, in January 1865, Hampton returned to South Carolina to recruit additional soldiers. He was promoted to lieutenant general on February 14, 1865, but eventually surrendered to the Union along with General Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Tennessee at Bennett Place in Durham, North Carolina. Hampton was reluctant to surrender, and nearly got into a personal fight with Union Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick at the Bennett Farm.

After the war, Hampton found his property and wealth diminished. His boyhood home, Millwood, near Columbia, South Carolina, was burned by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's Union soldiers, and his fortune was depleted supplying those soldiers. His many slaves were freed. Hampton was one of the original proponents, alongside Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early, of the Lost Cause movement, attempting to explain away the Confederacy's loss of the war. He was especially angry upon the arrival of black Federal troops to occupy his home state.

Wade HamptonHampton was offered the nomination for governor in 1865, but refused because he felt that those in the North would be suspicious of a former Confederate general seeking political office only months after the end of the Civil War. After his refusal, Hampton had to campaign for his supporters not to vote for him in the gubernatorial election. In 1868, Hampton became the chairman of the state Democratic Party central committee, that lost to the Radical Republicans in the election. His role in the politics of the state ceased until 1876, although he tried to help Matthew Calbraith Butler in the Union Reform campaign of 1870.

Hampton was a leading fighter against Radical Republican Reconstruction policies in the South, and re-entered South Carolina politics in 1876 as the first southern gubernatorial candidate to run on a platform in opposition to Reconstruction. Hampton, a Democrat, ran against Radical Republican incumbent governor Daniel Henry Chamberlain in Charleston. Supporters of Hampton were called Red Shirts and were known to practice violence. Due to their crude reputation and hopes of alleviating Union suspicion, Hampton used Grace Piexotto's "The Big Brick House", a prominent brothel located at 11 Fulton Street, to assure complete privacy for the Red Shirts' meeting ground, which was mainly served as campaign headquarters (Jones 2006: 22-23). The 1876 South Carolina gubernatorial election is thought to be the bloodiest in the history of the state. Both parties claimed victory. For over six months, there were two legislatures in the state, both claiming to be authentic. Eventually, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled Hampton was the winner of the election. The election of the first Democrat in South Carolina since the end of the Civil War, as well as the national election of Rutherford B. Hayes as President, signified the end of Reconstruction in the South.

After the election, Hampton became known as the "Savior of South Carolina". He was reelected in 1878, but two days after the election he was thrown from a mule while deer hunting and broke his right leg. The New York Times called this incident the "Mule Fraud", claiming it was a political trick planned by Hampton so he would not have to sign election certificates, even though the Governor of South Carolina does not sign such certificates.[citation needed] Several weeks later, his right leg was amputated due to complications arising from this injury. Despite refusing to announce his candidacy for the Senate, Hampton was elected to the United States Senate by the General Assembly on the same day as the amputation of his leg. He resigned from the governorship in 1879 and served two terms in the Senate, until 1891, but was denied a third term by the Tillmanites in the state elections of 1890.

In 1890, Hampton's niece Caroline, an operating room nurse, married the father of American surgery, William Halsted. It was because of her skin reaction to surgical sterilization chemicals that Halsted invented the surgical glove the previous year.

From 1893 to 1897, Hampton served as United States Railroad Commissioner, appointed by President Grover Cleveland. In 1899, his home in Columbia, South Carolina, was destroyed by fire. An elderly man, he had limited funds and limited means to find a new home. Over his strong protests, a group of friends raised enough funds to build him one.

Hampton died in Columbia and is buried there in Trinity Cathedral Churchyard. Statues of him were erected in the South Carolina State House building and the United States Capitol. An equestrian statue by Frederick W. Ruckstull was erected on the grounds of the South Carolina State House in 1906.

To honor Hampton for his leadership in the Civil War and the redemption of the state, the General Assembly created Hampton County from Beaufort County in 1878. The town of Hampton Courthouse (later shortened to Hampton) was incorporated on December 23, 1879, to serve as the county seat of Hampton County. Across South Carolina many towns and cities renamed streets for the revered statesman. At least eight municipalities in South Carolina have a street named "Wade Hampton" (Beaufort, Charleston, Duncan, Greenville, Greer, Hampton, Taylors, Walterboro) and in approximately 47 towns of South Carolina are streets named "Hampton." Two high schools in South Carolina are named "Wade Hampton High School," one in Greenville and the other in Hampton. A residence hall at Hampton's alma mater, the University of South Carolina, is called the "Wade Hampton." There is a Hampton Park in Charleston and a Hampton Park in Columbia named after Hampton. In 1964, Wade Hampton Academy was charted in Orangeburg the school later merged with Willington Academy in 1986 to become Orangeburg Preparatory Schools, Inc.

In 1913, Judge John Randolph Tucker named the Wade Hampton Census Area in Alaska to commemorate his father-in-law. An artillery battery was named after Wade Hampton at Fort Crockett, built on Galveston Island, Texas. The Wade Hampton Battery was one of four coastal artillery batteries and contained two 10-inch guns. During World War II, the SS Wade Hampton, a Liberty ship named in honor of the general, was sunk off the coast of Greenland by a German U-boat.

In Greenville County, South Carolina, the section of U.S. Route 29 that connects Greenville to Spartanburg is called "Wade Hampton" Boulevard. There is also a fire district (Wade Hampton Fire Department) named in his honor located on the east side of Greenville that adjoins the Greenville city limits.

Hampton appears in How Few Remain, the first novel in Harry Turtledove's Timeline-191 series, an alternate history wherein the South won the American Civil War. In it, Hampton prepares to lead a coup against Confederate States President James Longstreet after Longstreet announces plans to end slavery. Later in the series, in the novel American Empire: Blood and Iron, Hampton's fictional grandson, Wade Hampton V is elected President of the C.S. in 1921, but is assassinated shortly after by a member of the Freedom Party, an organization that resembles the Brown Shirts.

In Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone with the Wind, Scarlet O'Hara's first husband, Charles Hamilton, serves in Hampton's regiment, dying of measles only seven weeks later. As it was fashionable (according to Mitchell) to name baby boys after their fathers' commanding officers, Scarlett's son by Charles is therefore named Wade Hampton Hamilton.

In the North and South trilogy by John Jakes, the character Charles Main serves with Hampton's cavalry throughout the Civil War.

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This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Bayfield Class Attack Transport
    Keel Laid (Date unknown) - Launched 25 August 1944
    Acquired by US Navy 17 February 1945

Struck from Naval Register (Date unknown)

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each name of the ship (for example, Bushnell AG-32 / Sumner AGS-5 are different names for the same ship so there should be one set of pages for Bushnell and one set for Sumner). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.


This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each name and/or commissioning period. Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.

Intimate Frontiers : Sex, Gender, and Culture in Old California

This book reveals how powerful undercurrents of sex, gender, and culture helped shape the history of the American frontier from the 1760s to the 1850s. Looking at California under three flags--those of Spain, Mexico, and the United States--Hurtado resurrects daily life in the missions, at mining camps, on overland trails and sea journeys, and in San Francisco. In these settings Hurtado explores courtship, marriage, reproduction, and family life as a way to understand how men and women--whether Native American, Anglo American, Hispanic, Chinese, or of mixed blood--fit into or reshaped the roles and identities set by their race and gender.

Hurtado introduces two themes in delineating his intimate frontiers. One was a libertine California, and some of its delights were heartily described early in the 1850s: "[Gold] dust was plentier than pleasure, pleasure more enticing than virtue. Fortune was the horse, youth in the saddle, dissipation the track, and desire the spur." Not all the times were good or giddy, and in the tragedy of a teenage domestic who died in a botched abortion or a brutalized Indian woman we see the seamy underside of gender relations on the frontier. The other theme explored is the reaction of citizens who abhorred the loss of moral standards and sought to suppress excess. Their efforts included imposing all the stabilizing customs of whichever society dominated California--during the Hispanic period,arranged marriages and concern for family honor were the norm among the Anglos, laws regulated prostitution,missionaries railed against vices, and "proper" women were brought in to help "civilize" the frontier.


Overall, there are many recurring themes in the various diagnostic approaches and systems that have been used to address autism over roughly the past 80 years since Leo Kanner described the first 11 children. Much remains similar to Kanner’s first astute descriptions, though we now have a better understanding of the importance and the frequency of co-occurring disorders, as well as the breadth and developmental nature of the core features of social communication deficits and repetitive/restrictive/sensory behaviors. Challenges remain, including how to better understand sex and gender differences, how to apply what we know in different countries, cultures, and populations, how to learn from these differences, how to best use what we know about the dimensions that significantly impact lives, and how to adapt what are clearly dimensions to fit into a bureaucratic and sometimes political world that calls for categories. Another factor that will clearly change as new versions of DSM and ICD are eventually created will surely be greater inclusion of “autistic voices” and input from people with autism and their families. We know more now than we did years ago, but we still have much to learn and much to improve.

The second breakthrough

I made a trip to Florence and Rome, and found a number of parallels for the revised Hampton Court: rectilinear planning, elevated apartments, Roman sculptural subjects, classical ornament.

. chapter two [of 'De Cardinalatu'] describes how to design the ideal cardinal's palace.

Then, another breakthrough: in a library in Florence I read an original copy of Paolo Cortese's 'De Cardinalatu', published in 1510. It is a compendium of how to be a cardinal of the High Renaissance, and chapter two describes how to design the ideal cardinal's palace. It explained all of Hampton Court's idiosyncrasies in one fell swoop, including the Roman emperors in the central courtyard. If Wolsey had created the same unprecedented series of motifs at Hampton Court by accident, the coincidence would be even more remarkable.

We decided it would be wonderful to reconstruct Wolsey's palace using computer graphics. One week later, I'd produced a 25ft-roll of line drawings to send to the graphics company. The end product was more than worth all the hard work, as the sequences brilliantly recreated a long-lost experience and revealed exactly why Wolsey's contemporaries thought the palace was so amazing.

Today, Hampton Court retains the capacity to amaze: with six acres of buildings spanning 500 years, there's always so much more to learn, explain and enjoy about the palace. Hampton Court is still one of the 'pre-eminent' wonders of Europe, half a millennium after its initial construction.