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Renaissance architecture originated in Italy and superseded the Gothic style over a period generally defined as 1400 to 1600. Features of Renaissance buildings include the use of the classical orders and mathematically precise ratios of height and width combined with a desire for symmetry, proportion, and harmony. Columns, pediments, arches and domes are imaginatively used in buildings of all types.
Renaissance masterpieces which influenced other buildings worldwide include St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the Tempietto of Rome, and the dome of Florence's cathedral. Another defining feature of Renaissance architecture is the proliferation of illustrated texts on the subject, which helped to spread ideas across Europe and even beyond. The Renaissance style was frequently mixed with local traditions in many countries and was eventually challenged by the richly decorative Baroque style from the 17th century onwards.
Renaissance architecture was an evolving movement that is, today, commonly divided into three phases:
- Early Renaissance (c. 1400 onwards), the first tentative reuse of classical ideas
- High Renaissance (c. 1500), the full-blooded revival of classicism
- Mannerism (aka Late Renaissance, c. 1520-30 onwards) when architecture became much more decorative and the reuse of classical themes ever more inventive.
Historians rarely agree on exactly when these changes developed and much, too, depends on geography, both in terms of countries and individual cities.
Studying the Past
The Renaissance period witnessed a great revival in interest in antiquity in terms of thought, art, and architecture. The first and most obvious point of study for Renaissance architects was the mass of Greco-Roman ruins still seen in southern Europe, especially, of course, in Italy. Basilicas, Roman baths, aqueducts, amphitheatres, and temples were in various states of ruin but still visible. Some structures, like the Pantheon (c. 125 CE) in Rome, were exceedingly well-preserved. Architects studied these buildings, took measurements, and made detailed drawings of them. They also studied Byzantine buildings (notably domed churches), features of Romanesque architecture and medieval buildings. For many Italian architects, the Gothic style was regarded as an invasive 'northern' invention which 'corrupted' Italian traditions. In many ways, then, Renaissance architecture was a return to Italy's roots, even if medieval architecture was never wholly abandoned.
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The basic grammar of Renaissance architecture was the five classical orders: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, & Composite.
A second point of study was surviving ancient texts, most particularly, On Architecture by the Roman architect Vitruvius (c. 90 - c. 20 BCE). Written between 30 and 20 BCE, the treatise combines the history of ancient architecture and engineering with the author's personal experience and advice on the subject. The first printed editions came out in Rome in 1486. Renaissance architects pored over this work, studied the emphasis on symmetry and mathematical ratios, and in many cases, even tried to build structures that Vitruvius had only described in words. Perhaps an even greater effect was that Vitruvius inspired many Renaissance architects to write their own treatises (see below).
Architects not only studied the distant past but also what colleagues were doing elsewhere. Drawings and prints spread new concepts far and wide so that those unable to see new buildings in person could study developing trends. Sometimes, influences came from unlikely places. The Florentine painter and sculptor Michelangelo (1475-1564) created some of the most famous of all Renaissance artworks, and these were hugely influential on later artistic styles. His bold and decorative reimagining of classical figures in art also influenced architects, encouraging them to try new ideas in mixing up classical elements and making them more decorative. Michelangelo was himself directly involved in architecture. His Laurentian Library, San Lorenzo, Florence (1525) with its 46-metre (150 ft) long reading room, was a triumphal combination of aesthetics and function - two inseparable ideas for Renaissance architects.
Another influential artist-turned-architect was Raphael (1483-1520). He similarly influenced architecture, in his case with the Palazzo Bronconio dell'Aquila in Rome (now destroyed). This building had a very rich exterior decoration and was a deliberate and novel mix-up of the conventional and functional arrangements of columns, niches, and pediments.
Even more influential than these artists, though, were the specialised architects whose buildings, treatises, and biographies spread their ideas across Italy and Europe. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) is one such figure, and he is considered the father of Renaissance architecture. Brunelleschi was particularly interested in the study of linear perspective and achieving a harmonious simplicity of form in buildings which also considered the immediate environment in which they were constructed. Brunelleschi's emphasis on classical proportions, simple geometry, and harmony were prime considerations in what became a new architectural language.
This architectural language was formally canonised by Sebastiano Serlio (1475-1554) in his Seven Books on Architecture, a hugely influential theoretical and practical work (see below). Serlio formulated the five classical orders, the fifth having first been identified c. 1450 by the architect and scholar Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472). These orders are: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and the fifth, Composite (a mix of Ionic and Corinthian elements). Architects would play around with these orders, mixing and reimagining them to create wholly unique buildings. Designers would also add to the mix other ideas such as clever effects of illusionary perspective, seen especially in the work of Donato Bramante (c. 1444-1514), who was considered the founder of High Renaissance architecture. To better understand what each architect contributed to the movement that was Renaissance architecture, it is necessary to consider some of the key buildings of the period.
Churches continued to be a very important part of any community, and one of the most outstanding Renaissance contributions in this area was the dome of Florence's Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral, designed and built by Brunelleschi. Completed in 1436, the brick dome measures at the base 45.5 metres (149 ft) in diameter, and it made the cathedral the largest and tallest building in Europe at the time. The dome was a brilliant design and built without a fixed centring (temporary wooden scaffolding) during the construction stage. Rather, each circular course of the dome was completed before another course was added on top. The dome is self-supporting thanks to the 8 outer and 16 inner ribs that rise from the base to the peak and which create self-supporting arches. As a consequence of this system, the dome has a pointed profile and is composed of eight distinct sides. Another consideration for the architect was that a pointed dome gives much less side thrust on the drum below it than a hemispherical one, thus eliminating the need for extra support such as unsightly flying buttresses. Made from bricks laid in a reinforcing herringbone pattern, the dome is given further strength and lightness by having a double shell. Finally, it seemed the Renaissance had now surpassed the engineering feats of antiquity.
Churches were ubiquitous in Europe, but now many were given a facelift. The problem with such projects was how to match the symmetry of classical architecture with the medieval high-naved church. Alberti came up with one solution - to create a facade composed of three equal-sized squares (one on either side of the entrance and another above topped with a triangular pediment). The idea was put into reality for the facade of the Santa Maria Novella church in Florence (completed 1470). The use of columns and pediment strongly remind of a Roman temple front. Alberti went even further with his facade for the San Andrea church (designed c. 1470) of Mantua. Closely resembling a Roman triumphal arch, this was the first monumental classicizing building of the Renaissance. In addition, the interior repeats the arch theme with its massive piers and barrelled ceiling, the largest constructed since antiquity.
The Tempietto of San Pietro in Rome was designed by Bramante and completed c. 1510. The building, located on what was considered the site of Saint Peter's crucifixion, was the first Renaissance structure to use the complete Doric order from antiquity. The design, which blends classical and Christian ideas, is an excellent example of Renaissance humanism thinking expressed in architecture. The 16 classical columns (recovered from ancient buildings) are not only elegant and undecorated but the circle design of the temple was considered the perfect shape for a church as that was thought to be the noblest of geometrical forms. In addition, Christian buildings that commemorated martyrs were traditionally centrally-planned structures. The elegant facade and barrelled centre rising straight through a ring of columns to a soaring dome was imitated everywhere thereafter and can still be seen today in buildings worldwide, from London's Saint Paul's Cathedral to the United States Capitol.
In 1565 Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) began work on the San Giorgio Maggiore church in Venice, a building inspired by the 4th-century Basilica of Maxentius in the Roman Forum in Rome. Like Alberti, Palladio sought to provide a classical face to an irregular medieval building behind. The facade, which has columns on massive bases topped by Corinthian capitals, is made up of two interlocking temple fronts. It was Palladio's innovative solution to covering a sloping building with a symmetrical facade along classical lines. In 1576, Palladio repeated the idea for the church now commonly known as Il Redentore (Christ the Redeemer), also in Venice. The interior is spacious with only a very wide nave and no aisles. It has very little decoration and is mostly white, Palladio preferring instead to give the church character by the play of the abundant light on his Corinthian columns and arches. The luminosity of the interior is largely thanks to semicircular windows filled with remarkably clear Venetian glass. Both of these Venetian churches contain elements seen in Roman baths such as multiple vaulted areas divided by screens of columns.
The culmination of all the aspects of Renaissance architectural features arrived with the new Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. The old basilica, built on the site considered to be the tomb of Saint Peter, was demolished. Florence Cathedral's record as the largest church in the world was about to be superseded. Many architects were involved in a project that dragged on for over a century, but the first major design input came from Bramante. Commissioned by Pope Julius II (r. 1503-1513), the foundation stone was laid on 18 April 1506. The final stone was laid in 1626. The interior measures 180 x 135 metres (600 x 450 ft) while the magnificent dome has a diameter of 42 metres (137 ft) and rises to a height of 138 metres (452 ft) from ground level.
Public & Domestic Buildings
A public building which is often cited as a typical example of early Renaissance architecture is Brunelleschi's Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence (completed 1424). The architect's use of tall slim columns to support arches which create a loggia with shallow domes was imitated for the facades of many other types of public buildings throughout the 15th century.
In 1546 Palladio designed a new facade for the town hall of Vicenza (known thereafter as the Basilica Palladiana). The arches create what became known as the 'Palladian window', that is a pair of shorter double columns supporting the arch with each arch flanked by a single taller column. The idea contributed to what became known as the 'Palladian movement' in architecture, often called Palladianism.
In terms of domestic buildings, an influential reimagining of classical forms can be seen in Alberti's c. 1450 Palazzo Rucellai in Florence. The flattened facade of pilaster columns and perfect symmetry even included a lower portion of diamond decoration, a direct reference to the ancient Roman wall-building technique known as opus reticulatum. This building was the first of the Renaissance to receive a facade using the classical orders.
Another significant contribution to new ideas in private buildings was made by Bramante with his 1501 Palazzo Caprini in Rome. It is known as the 'House of Raphael' after Raphael began living there from 1517. It had an upper floor of classical orders and a lower rusticated floor of arched shop fronts. These two levels combined to create a strictly symmetrical facade, and it was hugely influential on palace buildings in Italy for the next two centuries.
Palladio was also hugely influential in domestic architecture. Working for wealthy landowners in and around Vicenza in northern Italy, Palladio designed many impressive villas which reimagined the temples of ancient Rome as private homes. He added a grand columned portico for the entrance (or even one for each side of the building), had a large central room topped by a dome, and put the whole structure on a raised platform. The best example is the Villa Valmarana, aka 'La Rotonda', near Vicenza, built c. 1551. Later Renaissance architects would add terraced gardens to further enhance the visual experience of grand isolated domestic buildings.
As the 16th century wore on, Renaissance architecture evolved into the more decorative and inventive Mannerism. A good example of this change in mood is the courtyard of the Palazzo Marino in Milan (completed 1558 CE), designed by Galeazzo Alessi (1512-1572). It is a theatrical presentation of classical elements almost obliterated by decorative sculpture. Compare this building with the classical symmetry and austerity of the High Renaissance Palazzo Farnese in Rome (design c. 1517) by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (c. 1483-1546).
Finally, Renaissance architects were involved in less beautiful but practically useful projects such as building flood defences, fortifications, monumental public fountains, and town planning.
Written Works on Architecture
Many architects, as noted, wrote books on their subject. Alberti's On Building (De Re Aedificatoria) came out in Latin in 1452 and then in the Tuscan vernacular in 1456. Alberti catalogued the defining principles of classical architecture and noted how these might be applied to contemporary Renaissance buildings. He emphasised the need for buildings to be visible from all sides, that the designer should equally consider the interior and exterior, and they should be impressive both in size and appearance. The book became a sort of architect's bible, even more so when it was printed in 1485 as Ten Books on Architecture. Justifiably, Alberti became known as the 'Florentine Vitruvius'. Alberti's work also began a wider discussion on the role of architecture in society, the relation of a building's design to its function, and got people talking about architecture who were not directly involved in that field.
Serlio's Seven Books on Architecture (1537 to 1575) not only canonised the five classical orders as mentioned above but covered the surviving buildings from antiquity, contemporary architectural theory, and practical advice for architects based on models. A particular feature of these books is the inclusion of a great many detailed and accurate woodcut printed illustrations, often drawn by Serlio himself. Another influential and much-thumbed book on the orders came from Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola (1507-1573), his 1562 On the Five Orders (Regole delle cinque ordini).
In 1556 Palladio provided a series of illustrations for a new edition of his hero Vitruvius' On Architecture and then made his own contribution to the growing Renaissance library with his Four Books of Architecture (1570). Immediately popular with architects, the work was translated into several other European languages, including four editions in English between 1663 and 1738. The work considers materials, the classical orders, domestic and public buildings, and provides reconstructions of Roman temples. The books helped spread Palladio's ideas on architecture because although they focussed on classical architecture, the author often used his own designs to illustrate the descriptions.
The Spread of Renaissance Ideas
Architects travelling to different cities and the spread of written works helped ensure Italy was not alone as a witness to the architectural revolution. Books were often translated and so, for example, the 50 illustrations of highly decorative doorways in Serlio's books became popular with Mannerist architects in Northern Europe.
Architects also moved abroad. In 1541, for example, Serlio left Italy for France, where he worked for the king, Francis I of France (r. 1515-1547) on the design and construction of the Palace of Fontainebleau. Francis was a keen patron of the arts and had already employed Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) between 1517 and 1519, possibly involving the Italian in the design for his massive new Chateau de Chambord. Serlio designed the Château d'Ancy-le-Franc (c. 1546) with its classical-inspired facade of pilasters. This chateau is a typical example of how Renaissance ideas were blended with local architectural traditions across Europe in buildings of all kinds from Antwerp to Lisbon.
The English architect Inigo Jones (1573-1652) famously collected original drawings by Palladio following a visit to Italy and so introduced his style to England. Jones designed such grand structures as the Queen's House in Greenwich and the Banqueting House in Whitehall, London, both in the second decade of the 17th century. Palladio's designs were also popular in Ireland and the American colonies where his columned entrance porches became a standard feature of everything from houses to libraries. Renaissance ideas even spread to other continents. The Spaniards travelled with architectural books and then copied elements into the buildings they erected in Mexico and Peru. Jesuit missionaries did the same in India and other parts of Asia. Meanwhile, back in Europe, the 17th century heralded a new architectural movement, which challenged the classically-dominated Renaissance style. This was the much more playful and exuberant Baroque style.
Renaissance architects rejected the intricacy and verticality of the Gothic style for the simplicity and balanced proportions of classicism. Rounded arches, domes, and the classical orders were revived (see Classical Orders). This revival was accomplished through direct observation of Roman ruins, as well as study of the treatise Ten Books on Architecture (the foremost surviving ancient work on architecture, written by Roman architect-engineer Vitruvius). 5
Renaissance architecture tends to feature planar classicism (i.e. "flat classicism"). The walls of a Renaissance building (both exterior and interior) are embellished with classical motifs (e.g. columns, pilasters, pediments, blind arches) of minor physical depth, such that they intrude minimally on the two-dimensional appearance of the walls (see example). Put another way, the walls of a Renaissance building serve as flat canvases for a classical veneer. This contrasts sharply with Baroque architecture, in which walls are deeply curved and sculpted (resulting in "sculpted classicism").
Planar classicism also tends to divide a wall into neat sections, using such elements as columns, pilasters, and stringcourses. (A stringcourse is a horizontal strip of material that runs along the exterior of a building, typically to mark the division between stories.) A Baroque wall, on the other hand, is treated as a continuous, undulating whole. 27
The foremost Renaissance building types were the church , palazzo (urban mansion), and villa (country mansion). While various great names are associated with Renaissance church and palazzo design, the most famous villa architect by far is Palladio.
Although the Renaissance flourished in Italy ca. 1400-1600, it only diffused across the rest of Europe during the latter half of this period (see Diffusion of the Renaissance). Outside Italy, the transition to the Renaissance was slowed by devotion to the Gothic style. Consequently, much non-Italian Renaissance architecture embodies a fascinating blend of Gothic intricacy and verticality (including towers) with Renaissance simplicity and restraint.
The leading region of Renaissance architecture in northern Europe was France, where the primary building type was the chateau (country mansion). The influence of French Renaissance architecture diffused across northern Europe. H809
Classical architecture, in the broad sense of "architecture that employs classical elements", continued to flourish throughout the Baroque and Neoclassical periods. Classical architecture thus dominated the Western world for the period ca. 1500-1900. Even today, in modern buildings stripped of traditional ornamentation, aspects of classical architecture persist (e.g. balanced proportions, neatly-sectioned facades, classical mouldings). F169
10. Cornelis Floris De Vriendt. Antwerp City Hall. Antwerp, Belgium (1561-1565)
Photo Credit: Klaus with K via Wikimedia Common
|Name||Antwerp City Hall|
|Designed by||Cornelis Floris de Vriendt along with other artists|
|Location||western side of Grote Market of Antwerp|
|Architecture Form||Flemish as well as influence of Italian style|
|Present status||UNESCO world heritage list|
Antwerp was the busiest trading port and the prosperous city in Northern Europe in the 16th Century.
It was a small town hall which was later expanded to the great and impressive structure on the suggestion of the Municipal Authorities.
The initial proposed designed was in Gothic architecture, but during the time of war, the work could not be initiated.
By the time when this town hall was ready to be renovated, the Gothic style was no more in trend. So, the Stadhuis was renovated in the Renaissance Architecture form.
It has four-story formation, wherein, each story has a different design and concept. The low arcade is a rustic stone and a little shop
The central section is decorated with ornaments and has statues which represent Prudence, Justice, and the coats of the arm bearing the Virgin Mary.
This hall was renovated by Pierre Bruno Bourla in the 19 th century where only the interiors were amended and not the structure.
The influence of the architecture has made a greater impact in Northern Europe and the present-day “Netherlands”.
Forms and Purposes of Buildings
Renaissance architecture adopted obvious distinguishing features of classical Roman architecture. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities, which is reflected in the resulting fusion of classical and 16th century forms. The plans of Renaissance buildings typically have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module. The primary features of 16th century structures, which fused classical Roman technique with Renaissance aesthetics, were based in several foundational architectural concepts: facades, columns and pilasters, arches, vaults, domes, windows, and walls.
Virgin of the Rocks (c. 1483-85)
This painting focuses on four figures: the Virgin Mary, John the Baptist and Christ as young children, and an angel. The Virgin is the central figure at the top of a pyramidal composition that emphasizes her importance, framed by rocks. Gazing downward, she reaches out her arm in blessing toward Christ but also outward to invite the viewer into this intimate scene. In the foreground, a pool is visible, with plants such as an iris and an aquilegia growing along its edges. The background is a dramatic vista of boulder formations, pinnacles rising up from earth, the shadowy depths of caverns, and an overarching roof of stone and fallen trees. Through the gaps, a sinuous river of blue green water moves toward the misty horizon on the upper left.
The title of the work originated from the mysterious and all-encompassing landscape that frames the sacred narrative. The vertical pinnacles and massive stone create a vivid contrast with the luminous figures, their curvilinear forms, and the softly draped clothing the Virgin and angel wear. The landscape is, as art critic Andrew Graham-Dixon wrote, "a fusion of fantasy and precise observation." The geological formation of the rocks and pinnacles resemble Italy's Dolomite mountains where Leonardo visited, writing in his 1480 notebooks: "Drawn by my eager desire I wandered some way among gloomy rocks, coming to the entrance of a great cavern, in front of which I stood for some time, stupefied and uncomprehending such a thing. Suddenly two things arose in me, fear and desire: fear of the menacing darkness of the cavern desire to see if there was any marvelous thing within."
This painting was innovative for several reasons. Rather than depicting the Virgin as an idealized Queen of Heaven upon a throne with the customary halo, he created her as the Madonna of Humility, a version of Mary that would also be adopted by Raphael. Beauty and grace become the conveyor of the sacredness of the scene rather than traditional iconographic symbology, thus diffusing the boundaries between ordinary man and religious figures. This painting also pioneered the technique of sfumato to create the soft and gentle transitions of facial expressions to convey the fluidity of human interaction rather than a static, merely two-dimensional image.
Charles Hope, the art critic, wrote, "only Leonardo was able to capture movement and the play of emotion," an ability which the critic attributed to "his complete mastery of the drawing medium. Leonardo was the first to understand how to use the sketchy, spontaneous possibilities of drawings to develop coherent and lively compositions in his paintings."
There are two versions of this painting, though the second one featured in the National Gallery in London, has also been attributed, by some scholars, to Leonardo's assistants. However, both have been equally influential upon later artists.
The Last Supper (1490s)
This iconic work is one of the world's most recognizable paintings. It depicts Christ, his form creating a triangular hub in the center, from which flank his disciples seated beside him at the Last Supper on the eve of his most famous betrayal by Judas. The group sits behind a long rectangular table, which forms a boundary between the viewer and the occupants of this most sacred moment. The walls on either side create diagonals that narrow toward three open windows in the background behind Christ, further illuminating his central importance to the scene, and the powerful dramatic results obtained from the use of linear perspective.
In this work, Leonardo deviated from the tradition of depicting Judas separate from the group, and instead conveyed his betrayal by showing him stiffly hidden in shadow. Previous artists had portrayed this instance of Judas being named as the traitor, but Leonardo chose to paint, for the first time, the moment just before, when Christ said, "Verily I say unto you that one of you will betray me."
This artistic choice highlighted a tense psychological moment, showing how the disciples reacted, each in their own individual way that conveyed their deepest feelings. Leonardo wanted to portray the Apostles in motion, as each gesture conveyed the movement of the soul. As he wrote, "One who was drinking has left his glass in its place and turned his head towards the speaker. Another wrings the fingers of his hands and turns with a frown to his companion. Another with hands spread open to show the palms shrugs his shoulders up to his ears and mouths astonished. Another speaks into his neighbor's ear, and the listener twists his body round to him and lends him his ear while holding a knife in one hand and in the other some bread half cut through by a knife."
Along with his innovative approach to the subject matter, Leonardo's study of optics, shadow, and light inform the work, creating a sense of movement that flows through the group like a wave of emotion. As a result it becomes what art historian Jacob Burckhardt called a "restless masterpiece."
The artist's radical experimentation with media can also be seen. To achieve an effect like oil painting, Leonardo used oil and tempera to paint on a dry wall, after first applying plaster and then adding an underlying layer of white pigment to increase the vibrancy of the colors.
Also of interest is the way Leonardo integrated elements into the scene in regards to its location. Duke Ludovico Sforza commissioned the painting for the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie monastery's refectory, and the artist created it so that Christ and his disciples seemed to be an extension of the space where the monks ate dinner. By using Italian models for the disciples, depicting a Tuscan landscape, and including a plate of orange slices and grilled eel, a popular dish at the time, he brought ordinary elements that the monks would recognize into the famous religious scene.
Within the first few decades the paint started to deteriorate, and other events have damaged the work. Nonetheless, the work has had an extensive influence, being referenced in works by Salvador Dalí, silk screens by Andy Warhol, and works by the artist and filmmaker Peter Greenaway. One of the most popular and recognizable of artworks, it has been reproduced in countless consumer items from wall calendars to velvet tapestries. The contemporary art critic Peter Conrad wrote of the fresco, "I wonder if Leonardo didn't intend it to decay. He knew that creativity fights a losing battle with destruction and that art cannot outwit nature: what better way to illustrate those morbid truths than to produce a miraculously beautiful painting that almost immediately begins to revert, like the bodies and minds of all who look at it, to unformed chaos?"
Main keywords of the article below: became, bible, battista, alberti, renaissance, leon, history, inspired, books, ’s, vitruvius, architecture.
Architectural history: In terms of formal analysis, the Renaissance in architecture marks a return to the vocabulary and (in part) the compositional principles of classical architecture, and hence a return to the foundations of western art.  Roman Houses- Renaissance Palaces : This book examines the history and different states of the architecture during the Renaissance.  One area that captures the Renaissance perfectly is the architecture, which delved deep into the history of Greece and Rome for inspiration yet incorporated innovation and new techniques. 
The most representative architect of Italian Renaissance Architecture is Bramante (1444-1514), who developed the applicability of classical architectural elements to contemporary buildings, a style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the 16th century.  Early Renaissance Architecture : Review the different early buildings with images and by architect to learn more about the different styles and designs.  The rules of Renaissance architecture were first formulated and put into practice in 15th century Florence, whose buildings subsequently served as an inspiration to architects throughout Italy and Western Europe.  Renaissance architecture first developed in Florence in the 15th century and represented a conscious revival of classical styles.  Another key figure in the development of Renaissance architecture in Florence was Leon Battista Alberti (1402--1472), an important Humanist theoretician and designer, whose book on architecture De re aedificatoria was the first architectural treatise of the Renaissance.  Within Italy the evolution of Renaissance architecture into Mannerism, with widely diverging tendencies in the work of Michelangelo and Giulio Romano and Andrea Palladio, led to the Baroque style in which the same architectural vocabulary was used for very different rhetoric.  Prince Ivan III introduced Renaissance architecture to Russia by inviting a number of architects from Italy, who brought new construction techniques and some Renaissance style elements with them, while in general following the traditional designs of the Russian architecture.  Donato Bramante (1444 -1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peters Basilica formed the basis of the design executed by Michelangelo.His Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio) marked the beginningof the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Alexander VIappointed him to build a sanctuary that allegedly marked the spot where Peter was crucified. 
This mathematical doctrine pervaded Renaissance architecture and helped the architects create buildings that they felt were harmonious and elegant.  Inigo Jones 1573 - 1652Inigo Jones is regarded as the first significant British architect of the modern period, and the first to bring Italianate Renaissance architecture to England.  Polish Renaissance architecture is divided into three periods: The First period (1500-50), is the so-called "Italian".  The first great exponent of Italian Renaissance architecture in England was Inigo Jones (1573-1652), who had studied architecture in Italy where the influence of Palladio was very strong. 
The style of Roman Renaissance architecture does not greatly differ from what may be observed in Florence Renaissance architecture.  Renaissance Architecture : Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.  Much of Renaissance architecture style was taken from Ancient Rome and Greece and then altered to fit their current lifestyle.  In Italy, there appears to be a seamless progression from Early Renaissance architecture through the High Renaissance and Mannerist to the Baroque style.  Latvian Renaissance architecture was influenced by Polish-Lithuanian and Dutch style, with Mannerism following from Gothic without intermediaries.  Renaissance Architecture Overview : This explores the different styles of architecture during the Renaissance based on phase and geography.  Duomo of Florence : The Florence Cathedral is the first example of a true dome in Renaissance architecture.  The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore was a church that was built over more than a century, but the dome of the church is a classic example of Renaissance architecture.  Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture Renaissance style places emphasison symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained.  The prime example of Renaissance architecture in Latvia is the heavily decorated House of the Blackheads, rebuilt from an earlier Medieval structure into its present Mannerist forms as late as 1619-25 by the architects A. and L. Jansen.  The Tempietto, c. 1502, Rome, Italy. : Designed by Donato Bramante, the Tempietto is considered the premier example of High Renaissance architecture.  The Palazzo Rucellai, a palatial townhouse built 1446-51, typified the newly developing features of Renaissance architecture, including a classical ordering of columns over three levels and the use of pilasters and entablatures in proportional relationship to each other.  The Palazzo Farnese courtyard, initially open arcades, is ringed by classically inspired columns (characteristic of Italian Renaissance architecture), in ascending orders (Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic). 
Architects of factories, office blocks and department stores continued to use the Renaissance palazzo form into the 20th century, in Mediterranean Revival Style architecture with an Italian Renaissance emphasis.  After the success of the dome in Brunelleschi's design for the Florence Cathedral and its use in Bramante's plan for St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in Renaissance church architecture and carried over to the Baroque.  Dome of St. Peter's Basilica : The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome is often cited as a foundational piece of Renaissance architecture.  Domes were used frequently in Renaissance architecture, both structurally and aesthetically, first in churches, and later in secular architecture.  Renaissance architecture arrived in England during the reign of Elizabeth I, having first spread through the Low countries where among other features it acquired versions of the Dutch gable, and Flemish strapwork in geometric designs adorning the walls.  These themes are first enunciated by the two co-founders of Renaissance architecture, Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti.  Filippo Brunelleschi was the first to develop a true Renaissance architecture.  Early Renaissance Architecture : This page discusses the first phases of Renaissance architecture.  There are common characteristics to help distinguish Renaissance architecture from different styles.  The spread of the Baroque and its replacement of traditional and more conservative Renaissance architecture was particularly apparent in the building of churches as part of the Counter Reformation.  Bohemia together with its incorporated lands, especially Moravia, thus ranked among the areas of the Holy Roman Empire with the earliest known examples of the Renaissance architecture.  In the early 17th century Dutch Republic, Hendrick de Keyser played an important role in developing the Amsterdam Renaissance style, which has local characteristics including the prevalence of tall narrow town-houses, the "trapgevel" or Dutch gable and the employment of decorative triangular pediments over doors and windows in which the apex rises much more steeply than in most other Renaissance architecture, but in keeping with the profile of the gable.  The Renaissance architecture coexisted with the Gothic style in Bohemia and Moravia until the late 16th century (e. g. the residential part of a palace was built in the modern Renaissance style but its chapel was designed with Gothic elements).  As in painting, Renaissance architecture took some time to reach the Netherlands and did not entirely supplant the Gothic elements.  Stylistically, Renaissance architecture came after the Gothic period and was succeeded by the Baroque.  In the Second period (1550-1600), Renaissance architecture became more common, with the beginnings of Mannerist and under the influence of the Netherlands, particularly in Pomerania.  It is one of the major works of 15th century Renaissance architecture in Northern Italy.  Renaissance architecture adopted distinguishing features of classical Roman architecture.  Many of the concepts and forms of Renaissance architecture can be traced through subsequent architectural movements--from Renaissance to High-Renaissance, to Mannerism, to Baroque (or Rococo ), to Neo-Classicism, and to Eclecticism.  A particular form of Renaissance architecture in Germany is the Weser Renaissance, with prominent examples such as the City Hall of Bremen and the Juleum in Helmstedt.  The Palazzo Medici Riccardi is an example of Renaissance architecture in designing a palace or a home.  The most notable examples of Renaissance architecture in that city are the Cappella Caracciolo, attributed to Bramante, and the Palazzo Orsini di Gravina, built by Gabriele d'Angelo between 1513 and 1549.  The Ottoman conquest of Hungary after 1526 cut short the development of Renaissance architecture in the country and destroyed its most famous examples.  The Tempietto is considered by many scholars to be the premier example of High Renaissance architecture.  There are few examples of Renaissance architecture in Norway, the most prominent being renovations to the medieval Rosenkrantz Tower in Bergen, Barony Rosendal in Hardanger, and the contemporary Austrat manor near Trondheim, and parts of Akershus Fortress.  St. Peter's Basilica is an example of Late Renaissance architecture.  Quattrocento or early Renaissance architecture examined the use of space and really focused on proportions.  Gripsholm Castle, Kalmar Castle and Vadstena Castle are known for their fusion of medieval elements with Renaissance architecture.  Florence is widely considered the cradle of the Renaissance, and this is true for Renaissance architecture as well.  Today, the only completely preserved work of Hungarian Renaissance architecture is the Bakócz Chapel (commissioned by the Hungarian cardinal Tamás Bakócz ), now part of the Esztergom Basilica.  Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture.  Renaissance architecture took a different approach from the Gothic architecture that came before it. 
During the 19th century there was a conscious revival of the style in Renaissance Revival architecture, that paralleled the Gothic Revival.  In the Veneto, the Renaissance ushered in a new era of architecture after a Gothic phase, which drew on classical Roman and Greek motifs.  In the Venato, the Renaissance ushered in a new era of architecture after a phase of Gothic art, with the creation of important works including the Ca' d'Oro and the churches of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and of Saints John and Paul in Venice.  This phase of architecture demonstrates how Gothic and Byzantine influences lingered much longer in Venice than they did in Florence or Rome during the Renaissance.  The Italian Renaissance that began during the 14 th century was the beginning of the Renaissance movement and affected art, literature, music and architecture.  In the 15th century the courts of certain other Italian states became centres for spreading of Renaissance philosophy, art and architecture. 
The Renaissance in EnglandRenaissance architecture arrived in England during thereign of Elizabeth I, having first spread through the Low countries where among other features it acquired versions of the Dutch gable, and Flemish strapwork in geometric designs adorning the walls.  With its perfect proportions, harmony of parts, and direct references to ancient architecture, the Tempietto embodies the Renaissance.  During the Renaissance, architecture became not only a question of practice, but also a matter for theoretical discussion.  Architecture was given a quasi-religious and philosophical status in Renaissance Europe, with many scholars believing that architecture was a way to unite the earth, humanity the cosmos and spirit.  The person generally credited with bringing about the Renaissance view of architecture is Filippo Brunelleschi, (1377-1446).  The architecture of Norway was influenced partly by the occurrence of the plague during the Renaissance era.  The architecture of the Renaissance went through three distinct phases as if developed.  There is little evidence of Renaissance influence in Finnish architecture.  This idea of perfection pervaded architecture and was tied into mysticism and philosophy, with occultists such as John Dee, and Renaissance philosophers believing that it tied the architecture to the laws of the cosmos and could reveal inner perfection.  High Renaissance and Mannerism : Review the transition between the two phases and how it affected architecture.  Both the Early and High Renaissance popularized two new formal approaches to architecture. 
The building is important in the history of English architecture as the first building to be completed in the neo- classical style whichIn Tudor and Early Stuart English architecture a was to transformbanqueting house is a separate building reached English architecture. through pleasure gardens from the main residence, whose use is purely for entertaining.  Sir Banister Fletcher Cruickshank, Dan, Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 20th edition, 1996 (first published 1896). 
Whereas art historians might talk of an "Early Renaissance" period, in which they include developments in 14th-century painting and sculpture, this is usually not the case in architectural history.  The Renaissance is the period of human history where the focus of human knowledge shifted away from the Middle East to Europe, as the Islamic influence declined. 
Catalog Record: A short history of renaissance architecture. 
During the High Renaissance phase, the architects began adding in more elements from Greek and Roman architecture.  The Palazzo Farnese, one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome, is a primary example of Renaissance Roman architecture.  Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory, mouldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture, sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths.  The Quattrocento, or the 15th century in Florence, was marked by the development of the Renaissance style of architecture, which represented a conscious revival and development of ancient Greek and Roman architectural elements.  The person generally credited with originating the Renaissance style of architecture is Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), whose first major commission--the enormous brick dome that covers the central space of the Florence Cathedral--was also perhaps architecturally the most significant.  Filipo Brunelleschi is generally thought to be the first true Renaissance architect, and is credited with bringing the classical orders and linear perspective to architecture.  The facade of Santa Maria Novella (1456-70) also showed similar Renaissance innovations based on classical Roman architecture.  Donato Bramante (1444-1514) was a key figure in Roman architecture during the High Renaissance. 
The style sometimes known as "Antwerp Mannerism", keeping a similar overall structure to late-Gothic buildings, but with larger windows and much florid decoration and detailing in Renaissance styles, was widely influential across Northern Europe, for example in Elizabethan architecture, and is part of the wider movement of Northern Mannerism.  Incommon with its architect Robert Smythsons other works at both Longleat Houseand Wollaton Hall, Hardwick Hall is one of the earliest examples of the Englishinterpretation of the Renaissance style of architecture, which came into fashion whenit was no longer thought necessary to fortify ones home.  Outside Italy, Baroque architecture was more widespread and fully developed than the Renaissance style, with significant buildings as far afield as Mexico and the Philippines.  As the new style of architecture spread out from Italy, most other European countries developed a sort of Proto-Renaissance style, before the construction of fully formulated Renaissance buildings.  There are several famous Renaissance buildings that show the evolution of the architecture during this period.  While Renaissance style and motifs were largely purged from Modernism, they have been reasserted in some Postmodern architecture.  One of the earliest places to be influenced by the Renaissance style of architecture was the Kingdom of Hungary. 
Access to the Classical Texts and the Teaching of Humanities The key to a new vision of human life and therefore of architecture came from the scholars’ access to the classical texts. International trading exchanges had helped to disseminate ideas, and a group of teachers of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, history and philosophy) who acquired the name of Humanists, played a crucial part in their propagation. These texts, including eventually The Duke of Urbino.  Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is widely considered the most influential individual inthe history of Western architecture. 
As with the majority of Renaissance architects, Alberti was inspired by the Roman architect, Vitruvius c. 80/70BCE - c. 15BCE), and he used his work to recreate a small piece of Roman history in his Tempio Malatestiano (1450) in Rimini and the Santa Maria Novella church in Florence (1470). 
Renaissance architects placed emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry, and regularity of parts as demonstrated in classical Roman architecture.  The obvious distinguishing features of Classical Roman architecture were adopted by Renaissance architects. 
Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts, as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. 
The Italian Renaissance Revival style developed at the very end of the Victorian period of architecture.  His design of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. 1450) is said to be "truly divorced from the medieval style, and could finally be considered quintessentially Renaissance:" Alberti's books on painting and architecture are considered classics to this day.  The Renaissance was a very important era for architecture because during the Renaissance, architecture became so much more than just building.  During the Renaissance the ideals of art and architecture became unified in the acceptance of classical antiquity and in the belief that humanity was a measure of the universe.  Renaissance art and architecture, works of art and structures produced in Europe during the Renaissance.  The Renaissance in Europe was a time when art and architecture was inseparable and the skills and talents of a single man could change the course of culture.  Overall the Renaissance saw some of the biggest architectural changes and achievements of all time, and it changed the whole of architecture forever.  Andrea Palladio's architecture from the 1500s still stands as some of the finest examples of Renaissance design and construction.  During the Renaissance art helped to bring architecture into a new age.  Architecture played a vital role to the Renaissance and the changes that happened.  Without the changes to architecture that happened during the Renaissance, architecture wouldn’t be anything like what it is today. 
The seminal, and still the most important, history of the style was Blomfield's The History of Renaissance Architecture in England (1897).  This was a way of looking at architectural history in England that owes much not only to Blomfield but to John Belcher (1841-1913) and Sir Mervyn Macartney (1853-1932), co-authors of Later Renaissance Architecture in England, also first published in 1897.  The new professionalism of the architectural establishment was now impinging on the students as well, who had to study the history and design of Renaissance architecture in detail for their examinations.  A history of architectural design, architectural practice, and the role of architecture in the culture and society of Renaissance Italy.  One proof of this was that when the equally outspoken James Fergusson wrote in his History of the Modern Styles of Architecture (1862) that the Renaissance was a "contagion," and that to return to the classical past for models was the "doom of Architecture" (qtd. 42), his argument went unchallenged. 
The Renaissance in European history left behind the Gothic era--it was a new way for writers, artists, and architects to look at the world after the Middle Ages.  If the Renaissance of Classical designs had not happened in the 15th and 16th centuries, would we know anything of ancient Greek and Roman architecture? Maybe, but the Renaissance sure makes it easier.  A Classical approach to architecture spread through Europe, thanks to books by two important Renaissance architects.  Before the dawn of the Renaissance (often pronounced REN-ah-zahns), Europe was dominated by asymmetrical and ornate Gothic architecture. 
Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is widely considered the most influential individual in the history of Western architecture.  A history of French architecture, from the reign of Charles VIII till the death of Mazarin, By: Blomfield, Reginald Theodore, Sir, 1856-1942. 
Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained.  His work was very different from what resulted of the filtered Renaissance style as he visited Italy and undertook a detailed study of ancient monuments and Renaissance architecture, particularly the buildings of Andrea Palladio and his concern with the fundamental architectural truth of buildings, which involved the function, harmony and proportion of the whole, and not simply the addition of classical motifs as applied decoration.  Following his Architectural Studies in Italy (1890), Anderson's The Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy: A General View for the Use of Students and Others (1896) described "the architecture of the Italian Renaissance, in particular that of the early sixteenth century," as exemplifying "the perfected period of the whole classical revival" (76).  We continue our series with Renaissance architecture, which is undeniably one of the most influential styles of all and as a cultural epoch, may be considered the foundation of modern western society.  Filippo Brunelleschi's and Leon Battista Alberti's works in the field of Ecclesiastical Architecture make for a fine comparison of how the ideas and ideals of Antiquity were translated into Renaissance architecture.  Katherine Wheeler's title, like her writing in general, is perfectly and succinctly accurate: Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture is a scholarly study of how and why opinion about the architecture of the early sixteenth to late eighteenth centuries changed during the Victorian period.  Refuting the arguments of Ruskin and Fergusson, "It is time to be rational," Anderson insisted, "and to leave off such characterisation of Renaissance architecture as a plague or a pestilence, a sham or a scenic affectation" (78).  It is remarkable, really, and yet another tribute to the power of Ruskin's rhetoric, that Renaissance architecture should have needed a new spokesperson who could explain this development thoroughly and lucidly. 
The Renaissance refers to the era in Europe from the 14th to the 16th century in which a new style in painting, sculpture and architecture developed after the Gothic.  Renaissance Art and Architecture, painting, sculpture, architecture, and allied arts produced in Europe in the historical period called the Renaissance.  Frontispiece ("South aisle wall and apsidal transept of the Cathedral, Como") and title page of the revised and extended second edition of Anderson's student textbook, The Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy (1896), showing Renaissance studies now firmly entrenched in academia.  Architecture in Renaissance Italy reﬂected the period's declining social morality, loss of religious faith, and erosion of craft.  In architecture, a fully Renaissance structure was not built until late in the century. 
From this point on, though, Wheeler deals with what she calls "the incremental shifts in perception that resulted in the Renaissance's acceptance" (7), partly because of a growing eclecticism on the part of practising architects themselves, and partly as a result of new views of the period, notably by Walter Pater (in Studies in the History of the Renaissance of 1873, and John Addington Symonds in The Fine Arts of 1877).  The Renaissance period in art history corresponds to the beginning of the great Western age of discovery and exploration, when a general desire developed to examine all aspects of nature and the world.  For many, the artistic creations of the Renaissance still represent the highest of achievements in the history of art.  This course investigates problems and approaches concerning the architectural history of the Renaissance.  If the painters of the Lowlands had a distinguished history during the Renaissance, sculptors were much less innovative, retaining a closer connection to the Gothic past.  The history of the Renaissance was now being rewritten by architect-authors. 
Encompassing the entire continent, Renaissance Architecture examines the rich variety of buildings that emerged during these seminal centuries of European history.  Examining each of these areas by turn, this book offers a broad cultural history of the period as well as a completely new approach to the history of Renaissance architecture.  Two general sites dealing with the history of Renaissance architecture and featuring examples of principal structures are available at http://web.kyoto-inet.or.jp/org/orion/eng/hst/renais.html as well as at www.anu.edu.au/ArtHistory/renart/pics.arch/index_1.html.  "Sketchbook created by William Ward Watkin, "History of Renaissance Architecture, 1908"." (1908) Rice University: http://hdl.handle.net/1911/12551. 
As such, it provides a compelling introduction to the subject for all those interested in the history of architecture, society, and culture in the Renaissance, and European culture in general. 
Scott's highly influential work, The Architecture of Humanism: A Study in the History of Taste (1914), proved pivotal.  Although indebted to Italian High Renaissance style, the austere majesty and complete lack of ornamentation of this structure mark a new style in Spanish architecture. 
The geometry, symmetry and proportion of Renaissance architecture is a key element, right down to the carefully arranged symmetry of the doors and windows - just like the ancient Roman buildings which were very much in tune with this concept.  Many examples of both Classical Roman architecture and Renaissance architecture are based on carefully studied and proportioned designs.  The sketchbook includes 17 sketches of Renaissance architectures in Venice, Rome, and Florence.  The onus of Renaissance architecture wasn't just about following the crowd, but making one's own impression on the work.  A portrait along with brief remarks about Alberti's importance to Renaissance architecture and links to sites about Brunelleschi and Masaccio appear at www.mega.it/eng/egui/pers/lbalber.htm.  One of the most notable aspects of Renaissance architecture is that of the dome.  In Renaissance architecture, there are examples of stylistic flourishes and unusual quirks that make the finished results stand out from the crowd.  While the exterior elements of Renaissance architecture were impressive by themselves, the interior elements were unique as well, particularly the acoustics of the structures. 
Although marked by the rise of powerful individuals, both patrons and architects, the Renaissance was equally a time of growing group identities and communities - and architecture provided the public face to these new identities.  Standing the test of time, the architecture of the Renaissance invokes a sense of grandeur and majesty.  Readership : All those interested in the architecture, culture, and society of Renaissance Europe. 
The architects of the Renaissance in Italy looked to their own history - principally, the Classical Roman age.  The new breed of Renaissance architects wanted to return to the glory days of Roman architecture, but also adding extra aesthetic sensibilities to the finished results. 
Knowledge of Classical architecture came from the ruins of ancient buildings and the writings of Vitruvius.  As in the Classical period, proportion was the most important factor of beauty Renaissance architects found a harmony between human proportions and buildings.  This concern for proportion resulted in clear, easily comprehended space and mass, which distinguishes the Renaissance style from the more complex Gothic.  From Florence the early Renaissance style spread through Italy. 
Filippo Brunelleschi is considered the first Renaissance architect. 
Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)The Palazzo Rucellai (1446-1451) was the first building to use the classical orders on a Renaissance domestic building.  While the enormous brick dome that covers the central space of the Florence Cathedral used Gothic technology, it was the first dome erected since classical Rome and became a ubiquitous feature in Renaissance churches.  Although studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance architectural theory, the style also became more decorative and ornamental, with a widespread use of statuary, domes, and cupolas.  The primary features of 16th century structures, which fused classical Roman technique with Renaissance aesthetics, were based in several foundational architectural concepts: facades, columns and pilasters, arches, vaults, domes, windows, and walls. 
The dome is structurally influenced by the great domes of Ancient Rome such as the Pantheon, and it is often described as the first building of the Renaissance.  While often described as the first building of the Renaissance, Brunelleschi's daring design utilizes the pointed Gothic arch and Gothic ribs that were apparently planned by Arnolfio.  One of the first true Renaissance façades was the Cathedral of Pienza (1459-62), which has been attributed to the Florentine architect Bernardo Gambarelli (known as Rossellino) with Alberti perhaps having some responsibility in its design as well.  The discovery of perspective in Renaissance art, by Van Eyck and Van der Weyden in the 15 th century, influenced the architects by reviving interest in the Platonic solids, with simple spheres, tetrahedrons and cubes readily apparent in many architectural designs, as well as many more complex solids.  Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475 - 1564) Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni commonly known as Michelangelo wasan Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet,and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development ofWestern art.  Leon Battista Alberti was the next of the great Italian architects and he was a true Renaissance man, worthy of mention alongside Da Vinci and Michelangelo as one of the great minds that defined the early Renaissance period.  The Renaissance : Look at images of different buildings and architects from the Italian Renaissance.  The first architect of the Renaissance era was Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), from Florence, the mind responsible for designing and engineering the Dome of the Florence Cathedral.  In 1434 Brunelleschi designed the first Renaissance centrally planned building, Santa Maria degli Angeli of Florence. 
Rome is widely regarded by scholars as the second Renaissance capital of Italy, after Florence, and was one of the most important architectural and cultural centers during this period.  This also meant that it was not until about 1500 and later that signs of Renaissance architectural style began to appear outside Italy.  In contrast to this town-based chateau, the Chateaux de Chambord (1519-47) was built in the countryside in the style of a fortified castle within a bailey or outer wall, thus neatlyoverlaying Renaissance symmetry and detailing on a fundamentally medieval building type.  Examples of Manueline include the Belém Tower, a defensive building of Gothic form decorated with Renaissance-style loggias, and the Jerónimos Monastery, with Renaissance ornaments decorating portals, columns and cloisters.  Whereas the Gothic style was perceived by architectural theorists as being the most appropriate style for Church building, the Renaissance palazzo was a good model for urban secular buildings requiring an appearance of dignity and reliability such as banks, gentlemen's clubs and apartment blocks.  •He wrote Della Pittura (On Painting) where itincluded Brunelleschi’s theories of perspectiveand De Re Aedificatoria (On Building), thefirst architectural treatise of the Renaissance.  The Roman author and architect Vitruvious wrote his multi-volume masterwork, De Architectura, around 15 BC. This catalogue of engineering and architectural technique profoundly influenced the architects of the Renaissance when it was fortuitously re-discovered in 1414.  In 1414, a text, De architectura libri decem, by the Roman architect, Vitruvius, was discovered in the Monte Cassino abbey, and this began to ignite the interest of Renaissance thinkers in using proportions for their designs.  Fioravanti was given the 12th-century Vladimir Cathedral as a model, and produced a design combining traditional Russian style with a Renaissance sense of spaciousness, proportion and symmetry.  This particular style, known today as Mannerism, was a reaction to the ornate earlier High Renaissance designs of twenty years earlier.  During the Renaissance people began to show more interest in the art and style of ancient Rome and Greek.  Architects of the early Renaissance looked to ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration.  Baldassare Peruzzi, (1481-1536), was an architect born in Siena, but working in Rome, whose work bridges the High Renaissance and the Mannerist. 
Michelangelo was the best known architect associated with the Late Renaissance, or Mannerist period.  The architectural period is known as the "High Renaissance" and coincides with the age of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael. 
Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet, it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien 1860, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860, English translation, by SGC Middlemore, in 2 vols., London, 1878) was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance.  The Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444 by Filippo Brunelleschi The Foundling Hospital is often considered as the first building of the Renaissance.  •The building reflected Renaissance ideals of symmetry, the use ofclassical elements and careful use of mathematical proportions.  He likened a building to the proportions of the human body, an idea that was also incorporated by the great Renaissance painters into their work, a process depicted perfectly in Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man.  In the Loire Valley a wave of building was carried and many Renaissance ch teaux appeared at this time, the earliest example being the Ch teau d'Amboise (c. 1495) in which Leonardo da Vinci spent his last years.  In the Loire Valley a wave of building wascarried and many Renaissance chateaux appeared at thistime, the earliest example being the Ch teau dAmboise. 
The buildings of the early Renaissance in Florence expressed a new sense of light, clarity, and spaciousness that reflected the enlightenment and clarity of mind glorified by the philosophy of Humanism.  The bleak economic conditions of the late 14th century did not produce buildings that are considered to be part of the Renaissance. 
The so-called Manueline style (c. 1490-1535) married Renaissance elements to Gothic structures with the superficial application of exuberant ornament similar to the Isabelline Gothic of Spain.  Decorative details in moldings and courses mimicked the ancient Romans, and were an important aspect of Renaissance architectural theory.  Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory.  During the reign of Holy Roman Emperor and Bohemian King Rudolph II, the city of Prague became one of the most important European centers of the late Renaissance art (so-called Mannerism ).  This structure has been described as Bramante's "calling card" to Pope Julius II, the important Renaissance patron of the arts who would then employ Bramante in the historic design of the new St. Peter's Basilica. 
Another reason Florence led the change to Renaissance design ideals was that Italy had never fully embraced the Gothic style.  Italy of the 15th century, and the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance. 
Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) Alberti wasan Italian author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, ph ilosopher, cryptographer and general Renaissance humanist polymath.  Giorgio Vasari and the Vite Giorgio Vasari 30 July 1511 - 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, writer, historian, and architect, who is famous today for his biographies of Renaissance artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. 
During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system.  Donato Bramante is considered the most representative architect of the High Renaissance.  Manfredo Tafuri, Interpreting the Renaissance: Princes, Cities, Architects, trans. with an introduction by Daniel Sherer, New Haven/London, Cambridge, MA: Yale University Press in association with the Harvard GSD, (2006).  Like the earlier architects, Renaissance designers believed that the universe was perfect and that the laws of creation were built upon mathematics.  St Peter's was "the greatest creation of the Renaissance", and a great number of architects contributed their skills to it.  The Statue of David, completed by Michelangelo in 1504, is one of the most renowned works of the Renaissance. 
The Renaissance in Germany was inspired first by German philosophers and artists such as Albrecht Dürer and Johannes Reuchlin who visited Italy.  The first "pure" Renaissance structures appear under King John III, like the Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Conceição in Tomar (1532-40), the Porta Especiosa of Coimbra Cathedral and the Graça Church at. vora (c. 1530-1540), as well as the cloisters of the Cathedral of Viseu (c. 1528-1534) and Convent of Christ in Tomar (John III Cloisters, 1557-1591).  Cathedral of Pienza : This Cathedral demonstrates one of the first true Renaissance façades.  The word "Renaissance" derived from the term "la rinascita", which means rebirth, first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' pi eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani The Lives of the Artists, 1550-60.  The city also has several Renaissance and Baroque buildings, including the Ca' Pesaro and the Ca' Rezzonico.  Santa Cruz Palace (1486-1491) in Valladolid is considered to be the earliest extant building of the Spanish Renaissance.  Basilica of St. Peter - This is perhaps the most famous building built during the Renaissance. 
Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.  As a former student of the prestigious Accademia Italiana and a long time admirer of the Renaissance masters, Carl Blackburn has maintained an abiding interest in all Renaissance art forms.  In Spain, Renaissance began to be grafted to Gothic forms in the last decades of the 15th century.  Historical background of the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century: Growing importance of the upper bourgeoisie (especially merchants, bankers).  Italian Renaissance : Review the different characteristics of the Renaissance and videos of the time. 
Michelozzo Bartolomeo (1396-1472) and the Palazzo Medici Cosimo de Medici of Florence The Palazzo Medici is a Renaissance palace located in Florence. • Bartolomeo was a student of Brunelleschi. • The Palazzo was influenced by the Foundling Hospital. • Used the arcaded courtyard of the hospital.  Palazzo Farnese : The Palazzo Farnese in Rome demonstrates the Renaissance window's particular use of square lintels and triangular and segmental pediments used alternatively.  Palazzo Farnese - A palace from the High Renaissance built in Rome for the Farnese family. 
The new architectural philosophy of the Renaissance is best demonstrated in the churches of San Lorenzo, and Santo Spirito in Florence.  The word "Renaissance" among architectural historians usually applies to the period 1400 to ca. 1525, or later in the case of non-Italian Renaissances.  The style that was to become known as Baroque evolved in Italy in the early 17th century, at about the time that the first fully Renaissance buildings were constructed at Greenwich and Whitehall in England, after a prolonged period of experimentation with Classical motifs applied to local architectural forms, or conversely, the adoption of Renaissance structural forms in the broadest sense with an absence of the formulae that governed their use. 
It was finished in 1635 which became a and was the first strictly classical building in model for future England, employing ideas found in the architecture of developments in Palladio and ancient Rome.  In a similar way, in many parts of Europe that had few purely classical and ordered buildings like Brunelleschi’s Santo Spirito and Michelozzo’s Medici Riccardi Palace, Baroque architecture appeared almost unheralded, on the heels of a sort of Proto-Renaissance local style.  The most representative architect is Bramante (1444-1514) who expanded the applicability of classical architecture to contemporary buildings.  Michelangelo was at his most Mannerist in the design of the vestibule of the Laurentian Library, also built by him to house the Medici collection of books at the convent of San Lorenzo in Florence, the same San Lorenzo’s at which Brunelleschi had recast church architecture into a Classical mold and established clear formula for the use of Classical orders and their various components.  The best known architect associated with the Mannerist style was Michelangelo (1475-1564), who frequently used the giant order in his architecture, a large pilaster that stretches from the bottom to the top of a façade.  De Architectura ("OnArchitecture") Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80-70 BC, died after c. 15 BC) was a Roman writer, architect and engineer, active in the 1st century BC. He is best known as the author of the multi-volume work De Architectura ("On Architecture").  The term "Palladian" normally refers to buildings in a style inspired by Palladio's own work what is recognized as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladio's original concepts.  Mannerism in architecture was marked by widely diverging tendencies in the work of Michelangelo, Giulio Romano, Baldassare Peruzzi and Andrea Palladio, that led to the Baroque style in which the same architectural vocabulary was used for very different rhetoric.  Palladian Architecture : Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580). 
He was, however, hardly a slave to the classical forms and it was his style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the 16th century.  From the observation of the architecture of Rome came a desire for symmetry and careful proportion in which the form and composition of the building as a whole and all its subsidiary details have fixed relationships, each section in proportion to the next, and the architectural features serving to define exactly what those rules of proportion are.  Trained as a goldsmith in his native city of Florence, Brunelleschi soon turned his interests to architecture, traveling to Rome to study ancient buildings.  Importantly, Brunelleschi also invented a number of lifting machines for raising the materials to the great height needed for building the dome, possibly his most significant contribution to architecture and construction. 
Donato Bramante, (1444-1514), was born in Urbino and turned from painting to architecture, finding his first important patronage under Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, for whom he produced a number of buildings over 20 years.  The first treatise on architecture was De re aedificatoria ("On the Subject of Building") by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450.  All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition.  Architectural treatises such as Alberti’s Ten Books on Architecture, Vignola’s The Rule of the Five Orders of Architecture, and Serlio’s Seven Books of Architecture were widely read, and helped spread the new revival of classic orders. 
While the pediment and the frieze were inspired by classical architecture, the scrolls were new and without precedent in antiquity, and ended up becoming a very popular architectural feature in churches all over Italy. 
After the success of the dome in Brunelleschi’s design for the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore and its use in Bramante’s plan for St. Peter's Basilica (1506) in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in church architecture and later even for secular architecture, such as Palladio's Villa Rotonda.  It remains the largest masonry dome in the world and was such an unprecedented success at its time that the dome became an indispensable element in church and even secular architecture thereafter. 
The architecture also used specific elements like columns and pilasters to decorate the buildings. 
RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(29 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)
Gothic style of architecture was never completely adopted by the Italian architects. French Rayonnant Gothic influenced the architecture of Cathedral of Milan. Some churches in Italy featured the elaborate tracery, clustered shafts and complicated ribbed vaulting.
Facts about Renaissance Architecture 8: the importance of architecture
Architecture was included in a theoretical discussion and practice during the Renaissance era. In 1450, Leon Battista Alberti created De re aedificatoria which marked the first treatise of architecture. In 1485, it received the status as the first printed book of architecture.
Renaissance Architecture - History
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Dome, in architecture, hemispherical structure evolved from the arch, usually forming a ceiling or roof. Domes first appeared as solid mounds and in techniques adaptable only to the smallest buildings, such as round huts and tombs in the ancient Middle East, India, and the Mediterranean. The Romans introduced the large-scale masonry hemisphere. The dome exerts thrusts all around its perimeter, and the earliest monumental examples, such as the Roman Pantheon, required heavy supporting walls.
Byzantine architects invented a technique for raising domes on piers, permitting lighting and communication from four directions. The transition from a cubic base to the hemispherical dome was achieved by four pendentives, inverted triangular masses of masonry curved both horizontally and vertically, as shown in the figure . Their apexes rested on the four piers, to which they conducted the forces of the dome their sides joined to form arches over openings in the four faces of the cube and their bases met in a complete circle to form the dome foundation. The pendentive dome could rest directly on this circular foundation or upon a cylindrical wall, called a drum, inserted between the two to increase height.
Displaced architecturally by the light, vertical styles of Gothic architecture, the dome regained popularity during the European Renaissance and Baroque periods. Vaulting is simpler than doming, and so the effort and ingenuity devoted to doming rectangular structures must be explained principally by the symbolic character of the dome. The desire to observe tradition preserved the dome in the early era of iron and steel construction. The modern reinforced concrete slab used in vaulting can be curved in length as well as width to form a dome. Here the distinction between vaults and domes has lost its original significance, being based only on the type of curvature in the slab.
The geodesic dome is built up of triangular or polygonal facets that distribute stresses within the structure itself.
Spanish Architecture in the Northern Renaissance
Gothic, Renaissance, and Mannerist elements are all important to the architecture of Spain in the 16th century.
Examine the influence of Gothic, Renaissance, and Mannerist elements in the architecture of Spain in the 16th century
- Plateresque emerged in Spain in the late 15th century. This architectural style , named for silversmiths, was known for producing decorative façades suggestive of silver plate.
- From the mid 16th century, Spanish architecture adhered closely to the art of ancient Rome , anticipating Mannerism .
- The Herrerian style dominated Spain in the late 16th and 17th centuries and was defined by clean and sober façades and attention to geometrical precision.
- El Escorial is a well-known example of the Herrerian style with its austere façades and fortress-like appearance.
- Herrerian: A 16th century Spanish style characterized by geometric rigor, clean volumes, the dominance of the wall over the span, and the almost total absence of decoration.
- plateresque: Pertaining to an ornate style of architecture of 16th century Spain suggestive of silver plate.
Renaissance architecture reached the Iberian peninsula in the 16th century, ushering in a new style that gradually replaced the Gothic architecture , which had been popular for the centuries.
Gothic forms began to incorporate the classical style of the Renaissance in the last decades of the 15th century. Local architects developed a specifically Spanish Renaissance, bringing the influence of South Italian architecture, sometimes from illuminated books and paintings, mixed with Gothic tradition and local traditions. The new style was called Plateresque because of the extremely decorated façades that brought to the mind the decorative motifs of the intricately detailed work of silversmiths, the “Plateros.” Ornamentation included floral designs, chandeliers, festoons, fantastic creatures, and similar configurations. The spatial arrangement of Plateresque, however, is more clearly Gothic-inspired. This fixation on specific parts and their spacing, without structural changes of the Gothic pattern, causes it to be often classified as simply a variation of Renaissance style. A prime example of this decorative style can be seen in the façade of the University of Salamanca.
University of Salamanca façade: The ornate façade of the University of Salamanca is a prime example of the Plateresque style.
From the mid 16th century, under architects such as Pedro Machuca, Juan Bautista de Toledo, and Juan de Herrera, there was a much closer adherence to the art of ancient Rome, sometimes anticipating Mannerism. An example of this is the palace of Charles V in Granada built by Pedro Machuca.
A new style emerged in Spain with the work of Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera in El Escorial, known as the Herrerian style. Herrerian architecture was extremely sober, naked, and particularly accomplished in the use of granite ashlar work. This style influenced the Spanish architecture of both the peninsula and the colonies for over a century.
Monasterio de Uclés, Cuenca, España: The Monastery of Uclés is a prime example of Herrerian architecture.
The floor plan of El Escorial—a palace for the royal family, monastery for their clergy, and burial place for major Spanish monarchs—was designed in the form of a gridiron. It was a design whose origin remains a matter of debate.
El Escorial, plan: The gridiron design of the floor plan of El Escorial has a modular plan, as seen in medieval cathedrals, and geometric symmetry, as seen in classical architecture.
Regardless of the reasons behind the floor plan, its basic components, as well as the general exterior and main façade, conform to the austerity of the Herrerian style, making the structure appear more like a fortress than a palace or monastery. It takes the form of a gigantic quadrangle, which encloses a series of intersecting passageways and courtyards and chambers. At each of the four corners is a square tower surmounted by a spire and near the center of the complex rise the pointed belfries and round dome of the basilica , which are and taller than the rest. As overseer of the construction of El Escorial, Philip II instructed his architects to maintain a sense of simplicity.
Aerial view of El Escorial: The compound of El Escorial contains features that conform to the austerity of Renaissance architecture throughout Europe while also anticipating the Baroque era.
The austerity of the west façade of El Escorial is typical of the classicism that re-emerged during the Renaissance. However, the main entrance, which takes the form of classical temple façades stacked atop another, actually looks forward to an architectural design that would become common during the Baroque era throughout Europe.
Monastery of St. Lawrence, El Escorial, main façade: The double temple façade contains engaged, as opposed to free-standing, columns in the Doric and Ionic orders.
4. Variations on the Classical Vocabulary
As the architectural language of Renaissance Italy developed, it slowly started spreading, but we have to remind ourselves of the typical building materials that each region was renowned for and the fact that every region had a strong desire to express its autonomy with the use of an architectural style that reflected its local traditions and heritage.
Certosa di Pavia, Pavia, Italy