Review: Volume 9 - Religion

Review: Volume 9 - Religion

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Acts of Giving examines the issues surrounding donation - the giving of property, usually landed property - in northern 'Christian' Spain in the tenth century, when written texts became very plentiful, allowing us to glimpse the working of local society. Wendy Davies explores who gives and who receives; what is given; reasons for giving; and the place of giving within the complex of social and economic relationships in society as a whole. People gave land for all kinds of reasons - because they were forced to do so, to meet debts or pay fines; because they wanted to gain material benefits in life, or to secure support in the short term or in old age. Giving pro anima, for the sake of the soul, was relatively limited; and gifts were made to lay persons as well as to the church. Family interests were strongly sustained across the tenth century and did not dwindle; family land was split and re-assembled, not fragmented. The gender and status of donors are key themes, along with commemoration: more men than women took steps to memorialize, in contrast to some parts of western Europe, and more aristocrats than peasants, which is less of a contrast. Donation as a type of transaction is also examined, as well as the insights into status afforded by the language and form of the records. Buying and selling, giving and receiving continued in the tenth-century as it had for centuries. However this period saw the volume of peasant donation to the church increasing enormously. It was this which set the conditions for substantial social and economic change.

"What happens when we die? Does the light just go out and that's that - the million-year nap? Or will some part of my personality, my me-ness, persist? What will that feel like? What will I do all day? Is there a place to plug in my laptop?" The bestselling author of "Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers" now trains her considerable humour and curiosity on the human soul, seeking answers from a varied and fascinating crew of contemporary and historical soul-searchers: scientists, schemers, engineers, mediums, all trying to prove (or disprove) that life goes on after we die. Electromagnetic hauntings, out-of-body experiences, ghosts and lawsuits: Mary Roach sifts and weighs the evidence in her hilarious, inimitable style.

Reformed Books

The Reformers and the Puritans have no doubt profoundly affected the church of Jesus Christ. We believe that the Church should be educated, and that in today’s technological age, they should have open access to Scripturally sound and Theologically edifying Christian literature from the Reformation and the Puritans. Every Christian, no matter where they live in the world, should not be hindered in their desire to understand the Bible more precisely, and come into a closer walk with Christ – least of all not being able to buy books due to funds. The ministry at A Puritan’s Mind not only works to disseminate the best Christian literature for free through the site, but with the rise of eBooks in all formats, we endeavor to supply quality Christian literature in accessible formats for free. These eBooks are generally in their original Old English, though many have been updated in some ways. They do not have the quality of the eBook that we publish at Puritan Publications. But they are extremely valuable in their scope and will be a great help to the reader. Most of these eBooks are formatted with an actively linked table of contents. Click on the name of the book to download it. John Hendryx worked on these eBooks to disseminate them for free because of their exceptional content.

The more we are able to get works like these into the hands of God’s people, the more they will be biblically prepared to deal with the world, the flesh and the devil, and to glorify the risen Savior, Jesus Christ.

(For those of you who like the Kindle, it would be helpful for you to upload .mobi files to your device with a USB cord to the folder called “documents”…but if you upload eBooks often, you should get the free app from Amazon called “send to Kindle” which will wirelessly upload the file to your Kindle device in an instant.

Gresham Machen’s Christianity and Liberalism (PDF)
In my little book, Christianity and Liberalism, 1923, I tried to show that the issue in the Church of the present day is not between two varieties of the same religion, but, at bottom, between two essentially different types of thought and life. There is much interlocking of the branches, but the two tendencies, Modernism and supernaturalism, or (otherwise designated) non-doctrinal religion and historic Christianity, spring from different roots. In particular, I tried to show that Christianity is not a “life,” as distinguished from a doctrine, and not a life that has doctrine as its changing symbolic expression, but that–exactly the other way around–it is a life founded on a doctrine. (From “Christianity in Conflict,” an autobiographical essay on Machen’s life and works).

Calvin’s Commentaries:

“After the reading of Scripture, which I strenuously inculcate, and more than any other … I recommend that the Commentaries of Calvin be read … For I affirm that in the interpretation of the Scriptures Calvin is incomparable, and that his Commentaries are more to be valued than anything that is handed down to us in the writings of the Fathers — so much that I concede to him a certain spirit of prophecy in which he stands distinguished above others, above most, indeed, above all”
– Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609)

These documents are located at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
at Calvin College. From the Calvin Translation Society edition
Genesis: 1-23, 24-50 Harmony of the Law: Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4 Joshua Psalms: 1-35, 36-66, 67-92, 93-119, 119-150 Isaiah: 1-16, 17-32, 33-48, 49-66 Jeremiah: 1-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-47, 48-52 Lamentations Ezekiel: 1-12, 13-20 Daniel: 1-6, 7-12 Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Harmony of the Gospels: Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3 John: 1-11, 12-21 Acts: 1-13, 14-28 Romans 1 Corinthians: 1-14, 15-16 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John Jude

Thomas Watson


John Owen



The following come in .pdf, Epub and Kindle Mobi formats)
Works: vol 1 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Dr. Owen

An Appendix Consisting of Letters, Notes, and Illustrations

Clarkson’s Funeral Sermon, and Indexes

Works: vol 2 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
A Discourse Concerning the Holy Spirit
Works: vol 3 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
A Continuation of A Discourse Concerning the Holy Spirit

The Reason of Faith

The Causes, Ways, and Meains of Understanding the Mind of God, As Revealed in His Word

Works: vol 4 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
A Discourse of the Work of the Holy Spirit in Prayer

Two Discourses Concerning the Holy Spirit and His Work
Of the Divine Original of the Scriptures

Of the Integrity and Purity of the Hebrew and Greek Text of the Scriptures

Pro Sacris Scripturis Adversus Hujus Temporis Fanaticos

Works: vol 5 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Two Short Catechisms

A Display of Arminianism

Salus Electorum, Sanguis Jesu or The Death of Death in the Death of Christ

Of the Death of Christ

Works: vol 6 of 21 (.pdf) – EPUB – Kindle
The Doctrine of the Saints’ Perseverance Explained and Confirmed
Works: vol 7 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Continuation of The Doctrine of the Saints’ Perseverance Explained and Confirmed

The Mortification of Sin in Believers

The Nature and Power of Temptation

Works: vol 8 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
The Mystery of the Gospel Vindicated
Works: vol 9 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
A Continuation of The Mystery of the Gospel Vindicated

Of the Death of Christ, and of Justification

A Review of the Annotations of Hugo Grotius

A Dissertation on Divine Justice

Works: vol 10 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Communion with God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost

The Same Subject Vindicated

A Brief Declaration and Vindication of the Doctrine of the Trinity, and of the Person and Satisfaction of Christ

Works: vol 11 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
The Doctrine of Justification by Faith

Gospel Grounds and Evidences of the Faith of God’s Elect

Works: vol 12 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
A Declaration of the Glorious Mystery of the Person of Christ

Meditations and Discourses on the Glory of Christ, in His Person, Office, and Grace

Works: vol 13 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
The Nature, Power, Deceit, and Prevalency, of the Remainders of Indwelling sin in Believers

The Grace and Duty of Being Spiritually Minded

Works: vol 14 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle

A Practical Exposition on the Hundred and Thirtieth Psalm

A Treatise of the Dominion of Sin and Grace

A Humble Testimony unto the Goodness and Severity of God in His Dealing with Sinful Churches and Nations

Works: vol 15 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Works vol 16 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Works vol 17 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Thirteen Sermons Preached on Varios Occasions

Twenty-Five Discourses Suitable to the Lord’s Supper

The Nature and Causes of Apostacy

Some Considerations about Union Among Protestants

The State and Fate of the Protestant Religion

Works vol 18 of 21 (.pdf) EPB – Kindle
Animadversions on a Treatise Entitled FIAT LUX

A Vindication of the Animadversions on FIAT LUX

The Church of Rome No Safe Guide

Works: vol 19 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB –Kindle
The Duty of Pastors and People Distinguished

Eshcol A Cluster of Fruit of Canaan

Treatises on Schism

Question Concerning the Power of the Supreme Magistrate About Religion, Proposed and Resolved

A Discourse Concerning Liturgies

A Short Catechism

A Vindication of the Nonconformists from the Charge of Schism

Works: vol 20 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
An Inquiry into the Original, Nature, Institution, Power, Order, and Communion of Evangelical Churches

An Answer to Dr. Stillingfleet’s Book of the Unreasonableness of Separation

The True Nature of a Gospel Church and Its Government

Works: vol 21 of 21 (.pdf) EPUB – Kindle
A Discourse Concerning Love, Church-Peace, and Unity

A Survey of a Discourse Concerning Ecclesiastical Polity

Tracts, and Orationes Sex Oxonii Habitae

Richard Sibbes


Thomas Brooks



Works Thomas Brooks 1 of 6 (60 MB .pdf) EPUB – Kindle
Precious Remedies Against Satan’s Devices Apples of Gold for Young Men and Women The Mute Christian under the Smarting Rod A String of Pearls.
Works Thomas Brooks 2 of 6 (60 MB .pdf) EPUB – Kindle
An Ark for all God’s Noahs
The Privy-Key of Heaven Heaven on Earth or, Wellgrounded assurance.
Works Thomas Brooks 3 of 6 (64 MB .pdf) EPUB – Kindle
The Unsearchable Riches of Christ
A Cabinet of Jewels.
Works Thomas Brooks 4 of 6 (50 MB .pdf) EPUB – Kindle
The Crown and Glory of Christianity.

Works Thomas Brooks 5 of 6 (68 MB .pdf) EPUB – Kindle
The Golden Key to Open Hidden Treasures
Paradise Opened A Word in Season.
Works Thomas Brooks 6 of 6 (66 MB .pdf) EPUB – Kindle
London’s Lamentations on the Late Fiery Dispensation
The Glorious Day of the Saints’ Appearance God’s Delight in the Progress of the Upright Hypocrites Detected A Believer’s Last Day is His Best Day A Heavenly Cordial The Legacy of a Dying Mother and Mrs. Bell’s Experiences Indices, etc


William Ames


An Analytical Exposition of Both the Epistles of the Apostle Peter. (266 pages)
[pdf epub mobi txt web]

Conscience with the Power and Cases Thereof. (476 pages)
[pdf epub mobi txt web]

A Fresh Suit Against Human Ceremonies in God’s Worship. (903 pages)
[pdf txt web]

The Marrow of Sacred Divinity. (386 pages)
[pdf epub mobi txt web]

The Saint’s Security Against Seducing Spirits. (49 pages)
[pdf txt web via Google Books]
A sermon on 1 John 2:20.

The Substance of Christian Religion. (343 pages)
[pdf txt web via Google Books]

1. Historical Background and Introduction

Religion, medicine, and healthcare have been related in one way or another in all population groups since the beginning of recorded history [1]. Only in recent times have these systems of healing been separated, and this separation has occurred largely in highly developed nations in many developing countries, there is little or no such separation. The history of religion, medicine, and healthcare in developed countries of the West, though, is a fascinating one. The first hospitals in the West for the care of the sick in the general population were built by religious organizations and staffed by religious orders. Throughout the Middle Ages and up through the French Revolution, physicians were often clergy. For hundreds of years, in fact, religious institutions were responsible for licensing physicians to practice medicine. In the American colonies, in particular, many of the clergy were also physicians—often as a second job that helped to supplement their meager income from church work.

Care for those with mental health problems in the West also had its roots within monasteries and religious communities [2]. In 1247, the Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem was built in London on the Thames River [3]. Originally designed to house 𠇍istracted people,” this was Europe's (and perhaps the world's) first mental hospital. In 1547, however, St. Mary's was torn down and replaced by Bethlehem or Bethlem Hospital [4]. Over the years, as secular authorities took control over the institution, the hospital became famous for its inhumane treatment of the mentally ill, who were often chained [5],𠂝unked in water, or beaten as necessary to control them. In later years, an admission fee (2 pence) was charged to the general public to observe the patients abusing themselves or other patients [4]. The hospital eventually became known as �lam” (from which comes the word used today to indicate a state of confusion and disarray).

In response to the abuses in mental hospitals, and precipitated by the death of a Quaker patient in New York asylum in England, an English merchant and devout Quaker named William Tuke began to promote a new form of treatment of the mentally ill called “moral treatment.” In 1796, he and the Quaker community in England established their own asylum known as the York Retreat [6]. Not long after this, the Quakers brought moral treatment to America, where it became the dominant form of psychiatric care in that country [6]. Established in Philadelphia by the Quakers in 1813, 𠇏riends Hospital” (or Friends Asylum) became the first private institution in the United States dedicated solely to the care of those with mental illness [7]. Psychiatric hospitals that followed in the footsteps of Friends Asylum were the McLean Hospital (established in 1818 in Boston, and now associated with Harvard), the Bloomingdale Asylum (established in 1821 in New York), and the Hartford Retreat (established in 1824 in Connecticut)𠅊ll modeled after the York Retreat and implementing moral treatment as the dominant therapy.

It was not until modern times that religion and psychiatry began to part paths. This separation was encouraged by the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. After being “introduced” to the neurotic and hysterical aspects of religion by the famous French neurologist Jean Charcot in the mid-1880s, Freud began to emphasize this in a widely read series of publications from 1907 through his death in 1939. Included among these were Religious Acts and Obsessive Practices [8], Psychoanalysis and Religion [9], Future of an Illusion [10], and Moses and Monotheism [11]. These writings left a legacy that would influence the practice of psychiatry𠅎specially psychotherapy𠅏or the rest of the century and lead to a true schism between religion and mental health care. That schism was illustrated in 1993 by a systematic review of the religious content of DSM-III-R, which found nearly one-quarter of all cases of mental illness being described using religious illustrations [12]. The conflict has continued to the present day. Consider recent e-letters in response to two articles published in The Psychiatrist�out this topic [13, 14] and an even more recent debate about the role of prayer in psychiatric practice [15]. This conflict has manifested in the clinical work of many mental health professionals, who have generally ignored the religious resources of patients or viewed them as pathological. Consider that a recent national survey of US psychiatrists found that 56% said they never, rarely, or only sometimes inquire about religious/spiritual issues in patients with depression or anxiety [16]. Even more concerning, however, is that the conflict has caused psychiatrists to avoid conducting research on religion and mental health. This explains why so little is known about the relationship between religious involvement and severe mental disorders (see Handbook of Religion and Health) [17].

Despite the negative views and opinions held by many mental health professionals, research examining religion, spirituality, and health has been rapidly expanding𠅊nd most of it is occurring outside the field of psychiatry. This research is being published in journals from a wide range of disciplines, including those in medicine, nursing, physical and occupational therapy, social work, public health, sociology, psychology, religion, spirituality, pastoral care, chaplain, population studies, and even in economics and law journals. Most of these disciplines do not readily communicate with each another, and their journal audiences seldom overlap. The result is a massive research literature that is scattered throughout the medical, social, and behavioral sciences.

To get a sense of how rapidly the research base is growing see Figure 1 . The graphs plot the number of studies published in peer-reviewed journals during every noncumulative 3-year period from 1971 to 2012. Note that about 50% of these articles are reports of original research with quantitative data, whereas the other 50% are qualitative reports, opinion pieces, reviews, or commentaries. Google Scholar presents a more comprehensive picture since it includes studies published in both Medline and non-Medline journals. These graphs suggest that the volume of research on R/S and health has literally exploded since the mid-1990s.

Religion spirituality and health articles published per 3-year period (noncumulative) Search terms: religion, religious, religiosity, religiousness, and spirituality (conducted on 8/11/12 projected to end of 2012).

Approach to religion

Eliade’s scholarly and literary approaches to myth, symbol, and religion are defined by several key assumptions and principles. First, he argued for “the irreducibility of the sacred.” He believed that religious phenomena must be understood as uniquely and irreducibly religious, as expressing meaning on a religious plane of reference. Eliade frequently criticized those who attempted to reduce religion to psychological, social, economic, historical, or other nonreligious phenomena. According to him, they failed to do justice to the unique, irreducible essence of religious experience: the sacred.

Second, the religious can be distinguished from the secular because it expresses a universal, essential structure that Eliade called the “dialectic of the sacred and the profane,” or the “dialectic of hierophanies” (manifestations of the sacred in the world). This dialectic involves the experience of the transcendent in which the sacred (infinite, eternal, nonhistorical) paradoxically manifests itself through ordinarily profane (finite, temporal, historical) phenomena. What is paradoxical, illogical, and incomprehensible to the rational, conceptual, natural, scientific, secular, human understanding is how a transcendent, perfect God can appear in ordinary human and worldly forms how what is absolute and eternal can be expressed in limited words, in trees and rivers, in historical beings and animals, and in dreams and other human experiences. In this sense, the supreme Christian mystery of the Incarnation, in which God assumed human form, is no more paradoxical than the universal dialectical structure of all religious manifestations.

Eliade’s approach is also grounded in his claim that there are essential, universal, coherent, symbolic systems that provide the framework for interpreting religious meaning. Religious language is symbolic, always pointing beyond itself to transcendent sacred meanings. Eliade understood human beings as religious beings (homo religious) and as symbolic beings (homo symbolicus). Human beings necessarily use language to express themselves, and it is the capacity to express things with symbolic language that allows humans to experience deeper meanings and to unify experiences in terms of coherent, symbolic, structural worlds of meaning. As symbolic, religious beings, humans were also viewed by Eliade as “mythic beings.” Myths are symbolic, sacred narratives of what took place in primordial, mythic time. They provide exemplary sacred stories that allow religious people to make sense of and deal with their existential crises, such as experiences of our historical and temporal limitations, of senseless suffering and arbitrary and tragic death, and of alienation and the lack of deep meaning in our lives. Myths are reenacted through rituals and other sacred activities. According to Eliade, creation myths (cosmogonic myths) and other myths of origins provide the most significant lessons for religious people. They provide accounts of the primordial time describe the transformations that explain the nature of human existence in the world and help humans return to the sacred origins, overcome sin, and become renewed by participating in the primordial sacred fullness of being.

Finally, it should be noted that Eliade was not a detached scholar. He was deeply concerned about what he perceived as the arrogance and provincialism of modern Western culture. Declaring that there was an urgent need for a “cultural renewal” and a “new humanism,” he held that individuals should reconceive themselves as global or planetary beings. He called for a “creative hermeneutics” that would decipher the sacred hidden in the modern profane and establish a dialogue with the symbols, myths, and religious phenomena of non-Western cultures.

Homeschool History Curriculum- Our Top Picks:

The Good and the Beautiful History– This one is Christian focused with an emphasis on God and character through history. It has family-style lessons for grades 1-12 with ideas to make it work for older and younger kids.

Each year it covers ancient through modern touching briefly on important parts of each period. I LOVE this history. This is our current TOP pick!

The lesson plans for this history curriculum are so easy to use! It is a curriculum that you can open up and use with no planning. They also include history games to help reinforce the concepts taught. There are also recommended read aloud books to fit with the curriculum.

Story of the World– We have been using this one for a few years now. It is also a 4-volume history rotation starting with ancient history. This is a top favorite for LOTS of homeschoolers.

If you use it, the Activity Books are a great investment as well! These books have 4 volumes covering different time periods. It is not religious, but does talk about different types of religion through history.

This is a wonderful set of books and style of learning heart-warming stories through great literature. They re-print old classic books that are hard to find or are out of print. They focus on topic rotations each month. We love their library.

Beautiful Feet Books– (See My Review) This is one of my TOP favorites! They focus on teaching the subjects through literature and have book lists for all areas of study. There are also study guides and timelines to guide you.

I am in love with their book lists and want everything. I like to browse here to get ideas on great books to read to my kids. I have used this a few times in our home.

The Mystery of History– I have heard many people share their love for this history curriculum. It is a Christian-based history curriculum with 4 volumes spanning through different periods of history.

Notgrass – They have American and World history as well as many other homeschool subjects! They have all grades, but I have particularly heard great things about their high school and middle school programs.

Trail Guide to Learning – From Geography Matters. It is a series of history books starting with the first volume, Paths of Exploration which teaches about famous explorers and pioneers. This is a wonderful curriculum!

This set is for grades 3-5. Later volumes are for later grades. Read My Review.

Diana Waring Presents -History Revealed There are three titles in the series from Ancient to Modern history. This is for grades 5-12, but there is an accompanying elementary version so it can be used for the whole family. It also teaches geography, music, literature, architecture, & more.

TruthQuest This is a Christian literature-based history curriculum. There are varying levels and subjects covering all grades and periods of history.

Heritage History is a literature-based curriculum using many of the Yesterday’s Classics books. There are study guides and books for varying levels and eras throughout history. It’s an incredible resource!

Draw and Write through History are a really fun addition to any history curriculum. It has different of eras of history teaching kids step-by-step drawings of different things through history. My kids have been using them and really enjoy them.

A Crash Course in History is a series of fun history movies available on YouTube for free done by John Green! He does a quick overview of different periods in history with fun animations.

Sonlight– they have complete curriculum packages for all subjects and grade levels. This is a favorite of lots of people. It is very literature-based.

History Scribe teaches history while also teaching drawing & writing. They have workbooks where kids draw and write about the things they learn. It covers all areas of history. This would be a great addition to any regular curriculum you are using!

Heart of Dakota– I have heard a lot of talk about this program. It is a Christ-centered homeschool curriculum for ages 2-15 that covers a variety of subjects.

Ambleside Online is an amazing free resource that follows the Charlotte Mason approach of learning. It outlines a curriculum and reading list for grades K-12. While I don’t follow Charlotte Mason exclusively, I do LOVE the book recommendations given on this site & visit it regularly to get suggestions.

Tapestry of Grace teaches history, government, literature, philosophy, Bible and more. It is for the whole family grades K-12 with 4 volumes coveinr different periods in history. Review from Thinking Kids.

Horrible Histories is another series of shows done by BBC. There is also a great website with tons of fun activities, books, and even historical toys. See My Review Here.

All American History Jr. from Bright Ideas Press for Elementary aged kids has literature guides, timelines, notebooking pages, coloring pages & hands-on activities.

3. The Rape of Nanking, Iris Chang

Chang’s book focuses on one of the most controversial episodes in Japanese history. From 1937 to 1938, Imperial troops massacred up to 300,000 residents of China’s former capital city Nanjing (also written Nanking). Based on extensive interviews with Japanese, Chinese, and Western eyewitnesses, Chang lays out in unforgiving clarity the atrocities committed by Japan’s army.

Lists with This Book

Review: Volume 9 - Religion - History

February 15, 2010

  • She remembers us — short stories by Sargis Ghantarjyan (in Russian)
  • Vardan Grigoryan: The history of the Armenian colonies in Ukraine and Poland (in Russian)
  • Rose Lambert: Hadjin, and the Armenian Massacres
  • Varazdat Harutyunyan: The city of Ani (in Russian)
  • Manvel Zulalyan:
    Armenia in the first half of XVI century (in Russian)
    The questions of XIII—XVIII centuries’ history of Armenian people according to European authors (in Armenian)
  • Stuermer, Harry: Two War Years in Constantinople
  • Tadevos Hakobyan: The history of Yerevan (in Armenian)

January 20, 2009
New additions to our collection:

  • Rafik Abrahamyan: Armenian Sources of the XVIII century on India (in Russian)
  • Valery Bryusov: Chronicles of the Historical Fate of the Armenian people (in Russian)
  • Grigoryan Grigor: Essays on the History of Syunik (in Russian)
  • Anatoly Yakobson: Armenian Cross Stones (in Russian) (in Russian) : Christmas Prayer (in Russian)

Also check Amayak Abramyants’ page for three new short stories.

June 7, 2008
Turkey and the Karabakh Conflict &mdash new book by Dr. Hayk Demoyan in the Russian section of the library. The book explores the Turkish participation in the Karabakh war as the main ally of Azerbaijan. A summary in English is also available.

May 7th , 2008
The Armenian monuments in Nakhichevan ASSR (in Armenian) by the historian and researcher Argam Ayvazyan. Illustrated with many rare photographs.

May 5th , 2008
Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire by Viscount Bryce: collection of documents and eye-witness accounts from 1915 about the genocide of Armenians and Assyrians in the Ottoman Empire.

April 13, 2008
Numerous updates in the Armenian-language section of the library.

January 7, 2007
2000 years of Armenian theater — a two volume work by art historian George Goyan in the Russian section.

January 4, 2007
We have four new authors in the Armenian and Russian sections: Kamsar Avetisyan with a collection of armenological articles Argam Ayvazyan with an illustrated book on the historical monuments of Jugha poet Hamo Sahyan Sargis Ghantarjyan (fiction, memoirs).

October 22, 2006
In the Armenian Mythology section the Sasuntsi David (David of Sasoun) folk-epic with classical illustrations by Hakob Kojoyan is added.

August 11, 2006
Added three articles about the Armenian question written by Nikoghayos Adonts in 1918󈞀, in Armenian. In the Kids’ section Arev - collection of Armenian folk-tales, in Armenian is added.

February 12, 2006
Check for updates in the Russian and Armenian sections of the library. Also please check the following announcement.

October 21, 2005: is back!
Armenian Electronic Library is back online with even more free content. But why was it offline on the first place? First our web site became the target of a DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack along with number of other Armenian web sites, and then we were busy looking for a better protected web hosting provider while also struggling with number of technical and organizational issues. So what's new? Report on the American Red Cross relief expedition of 1896 to Asia Minor, which was headed by Clara Barton—the legendary founder of the American Red Cross Society is added to the Armenian Genocide section. Also added Vardananq— the famous novel by Derenik Demirchyan in the Russian section of the library. And the last but not least: after 2 years of delays the text of Call of the Plowmen by Khachik Dashtents is now complete in the Armenian section of the library.

September 20, 2005: The book about Vahan Teryan sponsored by now published
The book "How can I sing the memory of yours. " by Rafik Ghazaryan is published however due to limited number of copies it will be distributed among the libraries and literary institutions of Armenia and probably will not be for sale.

June 10, 2005: awarded with 1st category award in the "Mashtots 1600" contest
This came as a total surprise to us: was awarded by the 1st category prize in the "El. Mayreni" nomination set by the «Friends of Matenadaran» foundation in the Mashtots1600 contest for which we got $500 in cash. Understanding that it is hardly possible to distribute this money among two dozen people who had contributed to our project during the last four years we decided to give all the money for something useful. Thus we sent them to the National Library of Armenia for publishing a book devoted to 120 year jubilee of Vahan Teryan. The book by Rafik Ghazaryan named "How can I sing the memory of yours. " (in Armenian) contains the chronology of the poet's life, bibliography of works about him, also quotes about Teryan by his contemporaries.

February 27, 2005
Thanks to Tom Samuelian we are able to present in our library the English translation of St. Grigor Narekatsi's Narek (Book of Lamentations). People who enjoy reading in the old-fashioned way (I'am sure those are the majority) may order a copy of this masterpiece of Christian literature from The St. Gregory of Narek web site provides valuable information on the history of Narek and more.

Also published in full the famous book of Armenian poems translated into English by Alice Stone Blackwell. It contains poetical works of 32 Armenian authors, including Duryan, Avetik Isahakyan, Siamanto, Patkanyan, Daniel Varuzhan, Sayat Nova and many others.

There are also updates in the Armenian and Russian sections of the library.

February 13, 2005
Almost a year ago an Armenian officer Gurgen Margaryan attending English language training course within the framework of NATO-sponsored partnership for peace program in Budapest, Hungary was axed while asleep by an Azerbaijani fellow student. The trial of the murderer is still not over and is constantly being postponed. International media did very little to publicize what happened in Budapest. Because of that the web site has been launched to provide more information on the case both for journalists and general public.

November 30, 2004
Added Khachagoghi hishatakarany by Raffi in the Armenian section of the library.

November 26, 2004
Added Chaos by Alexander Shirvanzade in the Russian section of the library.

November 23, 2004
Presenting The history of the Cilician Armenian state and law by professor Alexey Suqiasyan in the Russian section and works by Brother Mehruzhan Babajanyan on Christianity and Armenian church, including some of his works for children in the Armenian section of the library.

November 21, 2004
A historical novel about Joseph Emin—a person who devoted his life to the freedom of the Armenians—written by Eduard Avagyan is published in the Russian section.

November 10, 2004
Presenting three new authors in Literary Cafe: Gayane Vopyan, Ashot Beglaryan and Sargis Kantarjyan. Also new works added to Sara Margaryan's page.

July 27, 2004
Published online Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities by Edwin Munsell Bliss (originally published in 1896). Until now this book is considered to be the most accurate and full description of the Hamidian massacres of 1894-1896 by a Western traveler.

Also published the Report of the American Military Mission to Armenia by Major General James G. Harbord. It was presented to the U.S. Senate in 1920 and contained a detailed review of situation in Turkish Armenia and Transcaucasia after World War I.

July 12, 2004 presents Letters from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia by J. Rendel Harris & B. Helen Harris. The book was published in 1897 and contained eyewitness accounts by British missionaries about the Hamidian massacres of 1896. Special thanks to Aram Arkun and Irina Minasyan for their help in publishing this rare book on the Internet.

April 16, 2004
Uploaded The Red Rugs of Tarsus by Helen Davenport Gibbons. She was one of those few foreigners to witness the Armenian massacres of 1909. The book was first published in New York City, 1917.
The (Western) Armenian translation of Soghomon Tehlirian's Trial (aka "The Trial of Talaat Pasha") is published thanks to the support of an anonymous sponsor. The English version is also available.

February 9 , 2004
Travelogue by an Italian diplomat and historian Luigi Villari called Fire and Sword in the Caucasus is now available in the Armenian History section of the library. Balanced and thoughtful, this is one of the very few books presenting an accurate account of the revolutionary events of 1905-1906 in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and South Russia by a European witness. Contains 93 photographs. Published in 1906.

What Americans Know About Religion

Test your religious knowledge by taking an interactive quiz. The short quiz includes some questions recently asked in the nationally representative survey that forms the basis of this report. After completing the quiz, you can see how you did in comparison with the general public and with people like yourself.

Most Americans are familiar with some of the basics of Christianity and the Bible, and even a few facts about Islam. But far fewer U.S. adults are able to correctly answer factual questions about Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, and most do not know what the U.S. Constitution says about religion as it relates to elected officials. In addition, large majorities of Americans are unsure (or incorrect) about the share of the U.S. public that is Muslim or Jewish, according to a new Pew Research Center survey that quizzed nearly 11,000 U.S. adults on a variety of religious topics.

Our surveys often ask people about their opinions, but this one was different, asking 32 fact-based, multiple-choice questions about topics related to religion (see here for full list of questions). The average U.S. adult is able to answer fewer than half of them (about 14) correctly.

The questions were designed to span a spectrum of difficulty. Some were meant to be relatively easy, to establish a baseline indication of what nearly all Americans know about religion. Others were intended to be difficult, to differentiate those who are most knowledgeable about religious topics from everyone else. 1

The survey finds that Americans’ levels of religious knowledge vary depending not only on what questions are being asked, but also on who is answering. Jews, atheists, agnostics and evangelical Protestants, as well as highly educated people and those who have religiously diverse social networks, show higher levels of religious knowledge, while young adults and racial and ethnic minorities tend to know somewhat less about religion than the average respondent does.

Overall, eight-in-ten U.S. adults correctly answer that in the Christian tradition, Easter commemorates the resurrection of Jesus – rather than the Crucifixion, the Ascension to heaven or the Last Supper. A similar share know that the Christian doctrine of the Trinity holds that there is one God in three persons – the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Eight-in-ten Americans correctly identify Moses as the biblical figure who led the Exodus from Egypt, and David as the one who killed an enemy by slinging a stone, while seven-in-ten know that Abraham is the biblical figure who exhibited a willingness to sacrifice his son in obedience to God.

Most Americans also are familiar with two different terms that indicate a lack of belief in God. Almost nine-in-ten correctly identify the definition of “an atheist” (someone who does not believe in God), and six-in-ten correctly select the definition of “an agnostic” (someone who is unsure whether God exists).

Even some of the basics of Islam are familiar to a wide swath of the public. Six-in-ten U.S. adults know that Ramadan is an Islamic holy month (as opposed to a Hindu festival of lights, a Jewish prayer for the dead, or a celebration of the Buddha’s birth) and that Mecca (not Cairo, Medina or Jerusalem) is Islam’s holiest city and a place of pilgrimage for Muslims.

On the other hand, Americans are less familiar with some basic facts about other world religions, including Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism. 2 Just three-in-ten U.S. adults know that the Jewish Sabbath begins on Friday, one-quarter know that Rosh Hashana is the Jewish New Year, and one-in-eight can correctly identify the religion of Maimonides (an influential Jewish scholar in the Middle Ages).

Roughly one-in-five Americans (18%) know that the “truth of suffering” is among Buddhism’s four “noble truths,” and just 15% correctly identify the Vedas as a Hindu text.

Many Americans also struggle to answer some questions about the size of religious minorities in the U.S. and about religion’s role in American government. For instance, most U.S. adults overestimate the shares of Jews and Muslims in the U.S. or are unaware that Jews and Muslims each account for less than 5% of the population. 3 And when asked what the U.S. Constitution says about religion as it relates to federal officeholders, just one-quarter (27%) correctly answer that it says “no religious test” shall be a qualification for holding office 15% incorrectly believe the Constitution requires federal officeholders to affirm that all men are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, 12% think the Constitution requires elected officials to be sworn in using the Bible, 13% think the Constitution is silent on this issue, and 31% say they are not sure.

Nine of the survey’s questions were moderately difficult for respondents more than three-in-ten but fewer than six-in-ten respondents were able to answer them correctly. These questions include one about the Ten Commandments (58% know that the golden rule is not one of the Ten Commandments), one about the Gospel account of the Sermon on the Mount (51% know it was delivered by Jesus rather than by Peter, Paul or John), and one about the Catholic teaching on transubstantiation (34% know the Catholic Church teaches that during the Mass, the bread and wine used for Communion are not symbolic, but actually become the body and blood of Jesus).

These are among the key findings of a survey conducted online Feb. 4 to 19, 2019, among 10,971 respondents. The study was conducted mostly among members of Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (a nationally representative panel of randomly selected U.S. adults recruited from landline and cellphone random-digit-dial surveys and an address-based survey), supplemented by interviews with members of the Ipsos KnowledgePanel. 4 The margin of sampling error for the full sample is plus or minus 1.5 percentage points.

The survey was designed to measure the public’s knowledge about a wide range of religious subjects. The religious knowledge section consisted of 32 questions in total, including 14 about the Bible and Christianity, 13 about other world religions (four about Judaism, three about the religious composition of particular countries, two each about Islam and Hinduism, and one each about Buddhism and Sikhism), two about atheism and agnosticism, two about the size of religious minorities in the U.S. adult population, and one about religion in the U.S. Constitution. For a list of all the questions, see here.

The average respondent correctly answered 14.2 of the 32 religious knowledge questions. Just 9% of respondents gave correct answers to more than three-quarters (at least 25) of the questions, and less than 1% earned a perfect score.

At the other end of the spectrum, one-quarter of respondents (24%) correctly answered eight or fewer questions, and a clear majority (62%) got half (16) or fewer correct. This includes 2% of respondents who did not answer any questions correctly, mainly because they checked “not sure” in response to most or all the questions.

How various religious groups fare on the survey

On average, Jews, atheists, agnostics and evangelical Protestants score highest on the new survey of religious knowledge, outperforming members of other Protestant traditions, Catholics, Mormons and Americans who describe their religion as “nothing in particular.”

Jews get 18.7 questions right, on average. Self-described atheists and agnostics also display relatively high levels of religious knowledge, correctly answering an average of 17.9 and 17.0 questions, respectively.

Protestants as a whole correctly answer an average of 14.3 questions, with members of the evangelical Protestant tradition (15.5) doing best within this group. 5

Catholics (14.0) and Mormons (13.9) perform similarly to one another and to U.S. adults overall.

The survey does not include enough interviews with Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist or Sikh respondents to permit analysis of their levels of religious knowledge. 6

Looking only at questions about the Bible and Christianity, evangelical Protestants give the highest number of right answers (9.3 out of 14, on average). Atheists and Mormons are among the next highest performers, getting an average of 8.6 and 8.5 questions right, respectively. Atheists and agnostics do about as well on questions about the Bible and Christianity as do Christians overall.

Jews are the top performers on questions about other world religions, getting 7.7 questions right, on average, out of 13 questions about Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and global religious demography. 7 Atheists (6.1) and agnostics (5.8) also do well on these questions compared with the national average (4.3).

Other factors associated with religious knowledge

Beyond religious affiliation, what other factors are linked with how much religious knowledge a person has? The survey indicates that educational attainment – how much schooling an individual has completed – is strongly associated with religious knowledge. College graduates correctly answer 7.2 more questions, on average, than people with a high school education or less schooling.

One possible explanation for why Jews, atheists and agnostics score among the highest on this survey is that all three of these groups are highly educated, on average. However, Jews, atheists and agnostics display greater religious knowledge than other groups even after controlling for education and other demographic characteristics associated with knowing more about religion. (For additional discussion of statistical regression analysis exploring the factors associated with religious knowledge, see Chapter 3.)

Another educational factor linked with religious knowledge is having taken a class on world religions. Those who say they have taken a world religions class (e.g., in high school or college) answer 17.3 questions correctly, on average, compared with 12.5 among those who have not taken such a class.

Among Christians, knowledge of the Bible and Christianity is closely linked both with the amount of effort respondents say they invest in learning about their faith and with their religious background. Christians who say they regularly spend time learning about their own religion (for example, reading scripture, visiting websites, listening to podcasts, reading books or magazines, or watching television) answer more questions correctly about the Bible and Christianity than do those who say they make such efforts to learn about their faith less often (9.4 questions right out of 14 total, vs. 6.8).

The survey also finds that Christians who attended a religious private school while growing up answer 9.4 questions about the Bible and Christianity correctly, on average. By comparison, Christians who attended a public school or a nonreligious private school get fewer of those questions right. 8 Similarly, Christians who spent many years attending Sunday school or a similar type of religious education (for example, CCD for Catholics) correctly answer more questions about the Bible and Christianity than do Christians who never attended Sunday school.

The survey did not include enough interviews with Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus or members of other religions to permit reliable analysis of the connection between their religious education and knowledge of their respective religions.

In addition to educational factors, the religious diversity of Americans’ social networks also appears to have a connection with levels of religious knowledge.

The survey included a set of questions asking respondents whether they personally know someone who is an evangelical Christian, a Catholic, a Mormon, a Jew, a Muslim, an atheist, a Buddhist, a Hindu or a mainline Protestant. Respondents who know someone who belongs to a religious group tend to correctly answer more questions about that religion. For example, those who personally know someone who is Muslim are far more likely than those who do not know anyone who is Muslim to identify Ramadan as an Islamic holy month (76% vs 46%). And while 71% of respondents who know someone who is Hindu also know that yoga has its roots in the religion, just 43% of those who do not know a Hindu are aware of yoga’s Hindu roots.

Overall, Americans with the most religiously diverse social networks earn the highest scores on the religious knowledge survey. On average, respondents who know someone from at least seven different religious groups answer 19.0 questions right, on average, while those who know someone from three or fewer religious groups average 8.6 right.

Religious knowledge linked with more favorable views of religious groups

The survey also asked respondents to rate nine different religious groups on a “feeling thermometer” ranging from 0 (coldest and most negative) to 100 (warmest and most positive). Overall, Americans give Jews an average rating of 63 degrees. Catholics and mainline Protestants each receive an average rating of 60 degrees, followed closely by Buddhists (57 degrees), evangelical Christians (56 degrees) and Hindus (55 degrees). The average ratings given to Mormons, atheists and Muslims hover near the 50-degree mark. 9

Those who are most knowledgeable about a religion (and are not members of that religion) tend to rate the religion’s adherents most favorably. For instance, Buddhists receive an average thermometer rating of 67 degrees from non-Buddhists who correctly answer both of the survey’s Buddhism-knowledge questions correctly, but just 53 degrees from those who answer neither Buddhism-knowledge question correctly. The average rating given to Hindus is 11 degrees warmer among those who know a lot about Hinduism than among those who know little about Hinduism.

Moreover, higher scores on the overall (32-point) religious knowledge scale tend to be associated with warmer evaluations of most religious groups. Jews, for instance, receive an average thermometer rating of 70 degrees from non-Jews who answer 25 or more religious knowledge questions correctly, compared with just 54 degrees from those who answer eight or fewer questions correctly. One exception to this pattern is evangelical Christians, who are rated most warmly by those at the low end of the religious knowledge scale.

Other findings from the survey include:

    • Half of Catholics in the United States (50%) correctly answer a question about official church teachings on transubstantiation – that during Communion, the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ. The other half of Catholics incorrectly say the church teaches that the bread and wine used in Communion are just symbols of the body and blood of Christ (45%) or say they are not sure (4%).
    • Christians who attend religious services at least once a week correctly answer nearly 10 of the survey’s 14 questions about the Bible and Christianity, on average (9.6). By contrast, Christians who say they seldom or never attend religious services correctly answer an average of 7.2 of these questions.
    • Just one-in-five Americans (20%) know that Protestantism traditionally teaches that salvation comes through faith alone, a key theological issue in the Protestant Reformation. 10 One-in-ten incorrectly believe that Catholicism teaches that salvation comes through faith alone, while the remainder of adults declined to offer a response in the survey (38%) or wrongly state that both Protestantism and Catholicism teach this (23%) or that neither Christian tradition teaches this (8%). Evangelical Protestants are more likely than other groups to know the traditional Protestant teaching, though even among evangelicals, far fewer than half (37%) answer the question correctly.
    • When asked to choose the best description of the “prosperity gospel” from a list of options, roughly one-in-five adults (22%) correctly identify it as the idea that those of strong faith will be blessed by God with financial success and good health. Half of Americans (49%) say they are not sure what the prosperity gospel is. About one-in-eight (12%) incorrectly believe that the prosperity gospel is the teaching that it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God. An additional 8% think it is the belief that God’s blessing is given to the poor in spirit who shall store up treasures in heaven, and 7% say the prosperity gospel reflects the notion that “to whom much is given, much is expected.” Three-in-ten U.S. adults (29%) overestimate the size of the U.S. Jewish or Muslim populations, incorrectly stating that one or both of these groups make up more than 5% of the U.S. population. This includes 12% who think the size of both groups exceeds 5%, 13% who think Jews account for more than 5% of U.S. adults, and 4% who believe the Muslim population is larger than it is. Just 14% of respondents know that the Jewish and Muslim communities in the U.S. each make up less than 5% of the overall U.S. population. 11 And slightly more than half of U.S. adults (54%) say they are unsure about the size of both the Jewish and Muslim populations.
    • Questions about different religions not only vary in difficulty, but also focus on specific aspects of religions and do not cover the breadth of knowledge people may have about any specific religion. As a result, the survey cannot definitively state that Americans are more knowledgeable about Islam than they are about other non-Christian religions. Still, respondents were more likely to correctly answer the questions about Islam in this particular survey than they were to choose the correct answers about Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism. Indeed, roughly six-in-ten Americans know that Ramadan is an Islamic holy month and that Mecca is Islam’s holiest city, roughly double the share of U.S. adults who know when the Jewish Sabbath starts or what the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashana celebrates.
    • Men get more questions right, on average, than women (15.5 vs. 13.0). 12 And Americans who are 65 or older correctly answer about 16 questions, on average, while those under 30 get fewer right (11.9). 13 Non-Hispanic white respondents score higher (15.4 questions right, on average) on the survey’s religious knowledge questions than black respondents (10.5) and Hispanic respondents (11.7). These gender, age, and racial and ethnic differences are statistically significant even after controlling for education, religious affiliation and the religious diversity of respondents’ social networks (see Chapter 3 for more details).

    This is the second time Pew Research Center has tested how much U.S. adults know about religion. The first survey, conducted in 2010, found that atheists, agnostics, Jews and Mormons were the top performers, while in the new survey, atheists, Jews, agnostics and evangelical Protestants scored highest. However, there are several important differences between the two surveys that make them not directly comparable. To begin with, many of the questions asked in the new survey were not asked in 2010. Just 12 of the 32 current knowledge questions appeared on the 2010 survey, and all the repeated questions have been modified in ways that make direct comparisons impossible.

    Another difference is that the 2010 survey was conducted on the phone by live interviewers, while the current survey was conducted online with respondents entering their own answers. Sometimes when the same question is asked in two different modes, such as over the phone and online, there is a difference in results attributable to what survey methodologists call a mode effect. In other words, the presence of a live interviewer may encourage people to answer questions differently than they would if no one was observing their (self-recorded) responses.

    Also, the 2019 survey included a “not sure” response to every religious knowledge question respondents were given the explicit option of clicking “not sure” and skipping to the next question whenever they were unsure of an answer. By contrast, in the 2010 survey, respondents did not have an explicit “not sure” response option read to them over the phone. Instead, respondents were able to say they “don’t know” only if they volunteered it as a response. 14 As a result of all these differences, the results cannot speak to whether Americans have become more or less knowledgeable about religion over the past decade.

    Moreover, there is no objective way to determine how much the U.S. public should know about religion, or what are the most important things to know. As with the 2010 survey, the questions in the 2019 survey are intended to be representative of a body of general knowledge about religion they are not meant to be a list of the most essential facts.

    Roadmap to the report

    The remainder of this report explores these and other findings in more detail. Chapter 1 takes a step-by-step look at how people from a variety of religious traditions performed on each of the survey’s religious knowledge questions. Chapter 2 goes a step further and examines which factors beyond religious affiliation are linked with higher and lower levels of religious knowledge. Chapter 3 reports the results of multiple regression models that assess the relative impact of religious, social and demographic factors on religious knowledge. And Chapter 4 examines the results of the survey’s “feeling thermometer” questions, with a focus on how religious knowledge is linked with positive and negative attitudes toward a variety of religious groups.

    Religious knowledge questions

    Questions below have been paraphrased for brevity most response options were randomized. Correct answers are noted in bold. See topline for exact wording and question order.

    • Which Bible figure is most closely associated with leading the Exodus from Egypt? Moses, Daniel, Elijah, Joseph
    • Which figure is most closely associated with killing an enemy with a stone? David, Isaiah, Joshua, Solomon
    • Who is most closely associated with willingness to sacrifice his son to obey God? Abraham, Jacob, Cain, Levi
    • Who is most closely associated with saving Jews from murder by appealing to king? Esther, Ruth, Sarah, Rebecca
    • Which of these is NOT in the Ten Commandments? Golden rule, no adultery, no stealing, keep Sabbath holy
    • Who delivered the Sermon on the Mount? Jesus, Peter, Paul, John
    • Where did Jesus live during his childhood and young adulthood? Nazareth, Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Jericho

    Elements of Christianity
    • Easter Sunday commemorates what? Resurrection, Ascension, Crucifixion, Last Supper
    • Which best describes the Trinity? One God in three persons (Father, Son, Holy Spirit), there are three patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob), coming of Christ foretold by three prophets (Elijah, Ezekiel, Zechariah), there are three Gods (Father, Mother, Son)
    • Which is the Catholic teaching about bread and wine in Communion? They become actual body and blood of Christ, they are symbols of the body and blood of Christ
    • In Catholicism, purgatory is … where souls are purified before entering heaven, an offering made during confession, purification process made during self-reflection, where souls go for eternal punishment
    • Which group traditionally teaches that salvation comes through faith alone? Protestantism, Catholicism, both, neither
    • Prosperity gospel teaches … strong faith leads to financial success and good health, easier for camel to go through eye of needle than for rich person to enter the kingdom of God, to whom much is given much is expected, God’s blessing is given to the poor who store up treasures in heaven
    • What was the religion of Joseph Smith? Mormon, Catholic, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu

    Elements of Judaism
    • What best describes Rosh Hashana? New Year, Day of Atonement, candles lit for eight nights, end of Torah reading
    • Which religious tradition is Kabbalah most closely associated with? Judaism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism
    • What was the religion of Maimonides? Jewish, Mormon, Catholic, Buddhist, Hindu
    • When does the Jewish Sabbath begin? Friday, Thursday, Saturday, Sunday

    Elements of world religions
    • What is the holiest city in Islam, to which Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage? Mecca, Jerusalem, Medina, Cairo
    • Ramadan is … an Islamic holy month, Hindu festival of lights, Jewish prayer for the dead, festival for Buddha’s birth
    • What is the religion of most people in Indonesia? Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Sikhism
    • Which religious tradition is yoga most closely associated with? Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, Zoroastrianism
    • Which text is most closely associated with Hindu tradition? Vedas, Tao Te Ching, Quran, Mahayana sutras
    • Which is one of Buddhism’s four “noble truths”? The truth of suffering, every being has immortal soul, Buddha was perfect, monotheism
    • What is the religion of most people in Thailand? Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism
    • What is the religion of most people in Ethiopia? Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism
    • Which religion requires men to wear a turban and carry a ceremonial sword? Sikhism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism

    Atheism and agnosticism
    • An atheist … does NOT believe in God, believes in God, is unsure whether God exists, believes in multiple gods
    • An agnostic … is unsure whether God exists, believes in God, does NOT believe in God, believes in multiple gods

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    Watch the video: Watchman Video Broadcast 12-20-15, King James Code Volume 9, Number 9 Part 1


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