Greyhound III IX-106 - History

Greyhound III IX-106 - History

Greyhound III

(IX-106: t. 3,731; 1. 407'; b. 61'3"; dr. 18'; s. 15 k.)

Greyhound (IX-106) was built by the Delaware River Steamboat Co., Chester, Pa., in 1906, taken over by the Navy on the West Coast in 1918; and commissioned as Yale 25 March 1918. She saw extensive service shuttling troops across the English Channel until she decommissioned at the Bremerton Navy Yard in 1920. After 15 years of fast passenger service along the West Coast, Yale was laid up in 1935; in 1940 she was moved to Sitka, Alaska, where she served as a workers' dormitory. She was again acquired by the Navy 30 April 1943 and commissioned 8 August 1943, Lt. Comdr. W. N. VanDenbrugh, in command. She was named Greyhound 19 August 1943. After brief service Greyhound decommissioned 31 March 1944, and began duty as a coating barracks for personnel at various Puget Sound training schools. She was placed out of service on 9 March 1948 and her name was struck 18 June 1948. She was turned over to the Maritime Commission 12 November 1948 and placed with the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Olympia, Wash. until 5 June 1949 when she was sold for scrapping.


In the United States, greyhound racing is governed by state law, which ranges from total prohibition in some states to lack of regulation in others.

The National Greyhound Association founded in 1906 strictly regulates greyhound ownership in the U.S, and has established comprehensive animal welfare guidelines based on veterinary recommendations. These guidelines cover nearly every aspect of greyhound care on the farm and at the racetrack. The American Greyhound Council conducts unannounced inspections each year on the nation’s 300 breeding farms and kennels to enforce compliance with the industry’s animal welfare guidelines. Minor violations are noted and corrected and more serious violations are addressed in hearings before the NGA’s governing body. Those found guilty of these violations can be banned from the sport for life.

Greyhounds live in climate-controlled kennels, usually on or near the tracks where they race. They are turned out several times daily for mild exercise and play, exercised on sprint paths and taken for walks.

In addition to state law and regulations, most tracks adopt their own rules, policies and procedures. In exchange for the right to race their greyhounds at the track, kennel owners must sign contracts in which they agree to abide by all track rules, including those pertaining to animal welfare. If kennel owners violate these contract clauses, they stand to lose their track privileges and even their racing licenses.

American animal protection groups oppose greyhound racing, claiming it is cruel and inhumane. The most notable opponent of greyhound racing is the non-profit organization GREY2K USA.

In South Africa

In the Republic of South Africa dogs are kept with their owners. Due to the amateur state of racing, owners are usually also the trainer and rearer of the dogs it is very rare that a dog is kenneled with a trainer.

Racing is controlled by a partnership between the United Greyhound Racing and Breeders Society (UGRABS) and the South African Renhond Unie (SARU – South African Racing Dog Union). The studbook is kept by the South African Studbook and organization who keep studbooks for all stud animals. Racing takes place on both oval and straight tracks. Racing is technically illegal in South Africa, which is strange as any other form of animal racing, i.e. horse racing, pigeon racing and even ostrich racing is perfectly legal. Great controversy rages because the use of greyhounds to hunt wild animals is a fairly common occurrence. The supporters of dog racing believe that legal racing, as an industry similar to that of Australia of Great Britain, would cause hunting to eventually stop.

Medical care

Greyhound adoption groups frequently report that the dogs from the tracks have tooth problems, the cause of which is debated. The groups often also find that the dogs carry tick-borne diseases and parasites due to the lack of proper preventative treatments. The dogs require regular vaccination to minimize outbreaks of diseases such as kennel cough.

Recently, doping has also emerged as a problem in greyhound racing. The racing industry is actively working to prevent the spread of this practice attempts are being made to recover urine samples from all greyhounds in a race, not just the winners. Greyhounds from which samples cannot be obtained for a certain number of consecutive races are subject to being ruled off the track. Violators are subject to criminal penalties and loss of their racing licenses by state gaming commissions and a permanent ban from the National Greyhound Association. The trainer of the greyhound is at all times the “absolute insurer” of the condition of the animal. The trainer is responsible for any positive test regardless of how the banned substance has entered the greyhound’s system.

Life after racing

Generally, a greyhound’s career will end between the ages of two and six – after the dog can no longer race, or possibly when it no longer consistently places in the top four. The best dogs are kept for breeding, and there are both industry-associated adoption groups and rescue groups that work to obtain retired racing greyhounds and place them as pets. In the United Kingdom, according to the BBC, one in four retired greyhounds finds a home as a pet. In the United States, prior to the formation of adoption groups, over 20,000 retired greyhounds a year were killed recent estimates still number in the thousands, with the industry claiming that about 90% of National Greyhound Association-registered animals either being adopted, or returned for breeding purposes (according to the industry numbers upwards of 2000 dogs are still euthanized annually in the US while anti-racing groups estimating the figure at closer to 12,000.)Opponents of greyhound racing dispute the National Greyhound Association’s claims regarding adoption statistics, pointing to statements made by NGA officials that they don’t actually know what happens to dogs when they stop racing. Other greyhounds are sold to research labs, such as Liverpool university animal training school, who have received the remains of dogs killed at Manchester’s Belle Vue stadium. A trainer in Lincolnshire was also exposed offering ‘slow’ dogs to the Liverpool school. Additionally dogs are sent to foreign racetracks such as Spain and sometimes in developing countries.

In New Zealand, around 500-600 dogs are bred each year for racing, and between 200-300 are imported from Australia. Australia’s racing industry is about 9-10 times larger than the New Zealand industry. Approximately 250 are retired annually by a charity established and largely funded by the Greyhound Racing industry in New Zealand.

Several organizations, such as British Greyhounds Retired Database, Greyhound Rescue West of England, GAGAH, Adopt-a-Greyhound and Greyhound Pets of America, and the Retired Greyhound Trust try to ensure that as many of the dogs as possible are adopted. Some of these groups also advocate better treatment of the dogs while at the track and/or the end of racing for profit. In recent years the racing industry has made significant progress in establishing programs for the adoption of retired racers. In addition to actively cooperating with private adoption groups throughout the country, many race tracks have established their own adoption programs at various tracks.

In recent years, several state governments in the United States have passed legislation to improve the treatment of racing dogs in their jurisdiction. During the 1990s, seven states banned live greyhound racing. In November 2008, Massachusetts held a vote to ban greyhound racing, which passed 56% to 44%.

Celebrity greyhound owners

A number of historical figures and celebrities have owned or raced greyhounds. Alexander the Great, Henry VIII and his consort, Anne Boleyn, and Prince Albert of Saxe Coburg Gothe all had greyhounds as companions. General George Armstrong Custer also kept greyhounds as hunters and companions, to the occasional chagrin of his wife, Elizabeth Bacon Custer. More recently Al Capone, Frank Sinatra and Vinnie Jones raced greyhounds.

TV’s The Simpsons family own a greyhound named Santa’s Little Helper. They adopted him after he was discarded by his trainer for coming last in a race in the first episode of the series. Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails has adopted multiple retired racers. JK Rowling also adopted a greyhound.

The real history that inspired WW2 film Greyhound

Set in 1942, at the height of the Battle of the Atlantic, a new World War Two film Greyhound starring Tom Hanks tells the story of a newly-appointed naval captain heading to the front for the first time, tasked with commanding a convoy of 37 Allied ships across the treacherous North Atlantic while being hotly pursued by wolf packs of Nazi U-boats

This competition is now closed

Published: July 8, 2020 at 2:30 pm

Here, ahead of the film’s release on Apple TV+ on 10 July, historian James Holland explores the real history that inspired Greyhound – based on C S Forester’s 1955 novel The Good Shepherd – and explains why the Battle of the Atlantic was the most vital campaign of the Second World War…

The mid-Atlantic, sometime in the winter of 1942. Commander George Krause has been on the bridge of his destroyer, the USS Keeling, for nearly 24 hours, locked in a deadly game of cat-and-mouse with a wolf pack of German U-boats – exactly how many is not clear. One U-boat was destroyed in the grey afternoon of the day before, and since then, Keeling and one other of Krause’s four-ship escort team – a Polish destroyer, the Viktor – have been pursuing another enemy sub without success, despite unleashing some 50 depth charges between them.

It is freezing cold, the ice covering the surfaces and rails of the destroyer’s deck. Krause, having eaten barely half a sandwich and drunk only a couple of cups of coffee in that time, is utterly exhausted, cold, hungry and thirsty, but keenly aware he must keep going until they push through this screen of U-boats and get back within the range of Allied air cover. It means another long day ahead of them and already six ships in the convoy have been hit and destroyed.

The responsibilities on the shoulders of this devout 42-year-old man are immense and he repeatedly has to make heart-wrenching choices. Should he pick up men in the freezing water or plough on and potentially save more? Every decision, calculation and educated guess regarding the enemy’s next move has potentially fatal consequences, not just for his own ship but for the entire convoy it is his task to protect.

To add to the weight of his responsibility, this is his first transatlantic convoy. Yet by stint of his seniority of rank and age he is the ‘Comescort’ – the overall commander of the four-ship escort of a Canadian corvette, British and Polish destroyers, and his own in the United States Navy.

It is at dawn, having been up all night, that Commander Krause conjures up a picture in his mind of an ideal convoy escort force: “With eight escort vessels and four destroyers a good job could be done,” he thinks, “and air cover.” But this was still 1942 and such forces were not yet available he would have to make do with what he had.

C S Forester’s The Good Shepherd

The depiction is fictional, but it is brilliantly conveyed by the legendary historical thriller writer C S Forester. Although The Good Shepherd was published in 1955, some 10 years after the Second World War ended, Forester certainly did his research. The evocation of this one 48-hour moment in the Battle of the Atlantic is powerfully done, while the enormity of the decisions and the complexity of commanding a convoy escort is written with a nod to historical accuracy and detail that is second-to-none.

It’s something of a forgotten classic – or rather, it has been, although not one passed over by Oscar-winning actor Tom Hanks, a self-confessed Second World War nut, who has used Forester’s book to write and star in a new film based on the novel called Greyhound. Hanks plays Commander Krause (in the film he is named Ernest, not George).

It’s certainly a great subject for a movie and one that has been ignored for far too long by Hollywood, because the Battle of the Atlantic was an epic of drama and of strategic importance. In fact, it can be argued pretty convincingly that it was the most vital of all campaigns in the Second World War.

Why? All shipping in and out of Britain went through the Atlantic. Had the Atlantic been lost, so too would have Britain. There would have been no Mediterranean campaign, no D-Day, no VE or VJ Days. The vast, global supply chain upon which the Allies depended – the Soviet Union included – would have been cut, and with it the lifeline.

What was the Battle of the Atlantic?

In March 1941 Winston Churchill coined the phrase ‘Battle of the Atlantic’ to describe a six-year series of battles that opened on 3 September 1939 and did not conclude until the last day of the war.

In a struggle for control of the sea lanes from Britain to the Americas, the Royal Navy and United States Navy were pitted against the German Kriegsmarine. Against the sea lanes, upon which depended Britain’s ability to feed and maintain itself in the war, Germany deployed U-boat submarines, surface raiders, mines and aircraft, says historian GH Bennett.

The convoys of merchant ships were defended by a variety of armed escort vessels from makeshift ships like armed merchant cruisers and trawlers through to purpose-built corvettes, frigates and destroyers.

From 1940 until 1943 the combat in the Atlantic hung in the balance. Yet, due in part to the fact that they were able to make better use of technical innovations than the enemy, from the middle of 1943 the Allies slowly gained the upper hand.

The Battle of the Atlantic “was the longest, and perhaps strangest, clash of the Second World War” says GH Bennett, “one that would see British merchant seamen using kites and wire-carrying rockets in defence of their ships.” The campaign was a brutal one in which nearly 38,000 British sailors alone lost their lives, while a staggering 79 per cent of U-boat crewmen died.

The Battle of the Atlantic was vital to the outcome of the Second World War. “The Atlantic was the route by which all resources came to Britain, without which the country would have collapsed,” says Jonathan Dimbleby. “Had we lost the battle, we wouldn’t have had enough weapons – nor the industrial capacity to make weapons – and American troops would not have been able to get across for D-Day. In fact, there wouldn’t have been a D-Day.”

It was why, from the outset, Britain devoted so much of its energy to winning this most critical of battlegrounds. New inventions came thick and fast, from the development of the cavity magnetron – which enabled the reduction in size of radar so that instead of vast masts it could be fitted onto a ship or aircraft – to rapid improvements in radio technology, stunning intelligence successes, and superbly orchestrated organisation.

In fact, by the end of May 1941, Britain had reached a point where already it could no longer lose the battle, even though another two long years would follow before the U-boat threat in the Atlantic was defeated. Fortunately, before the war, Hitler favoured creating a large surface fleet rather than a sizeable submarine force, even though his warships could never hope to compete with the Royal Navy let alone the French or US navies, and despite the almost war-changing effect U-boats previously had in the First World War.

As a result, the U-boat arm was just 3,000-men strong on the frontline when war broke out, and throughout 1940, when Britain was at its most vulnerable, there were never more than 13 U-boats operating in the Atlantic at any one time. In January 1941, there had been just six. It wasn’t nearly enough in so vast an ocean.

Timeline: Germany and the Allies in the Atlantic

August 1939

In preparation for hostilities, the German submarine fleet deploys into the North Sea, sinking its first ship a few hours after the outbreak of war with Britain

Capture of the French Atlantic ports gives Germany easy access to the North and South Atlantic

Late 1940–1941

First ‘happy time’ of the U-boat arm as convoys sail with weak escorting forces

January–June 1942

German submarines enjoy great success off the east coast of the United States

In a series of convoy battles German submarines threaten to overwhelm the escorting warships

April–May 1943

Allies regain the initiative in the Atlantic, sinking more U-boats and losing fewer merchant ships

Late 1943–1945

Long decline of the German submarine campaign

From September 1941, the US Navy had joined the battle in the Atlantic despite having not yet declared war, although after the Japanese entry into the war that December, the mantle was for the most part handed back to the Royal Navy and the rapidly growing Royal Canadian Navy, while the US Navy focussed on the Pacific. Meanwhile, the U-boat fleet grew in number but suffered from faltering experience and equipment that had flat-lined. In contrast, the Allies continued to improve detection techniques and weaponry with a combination of ships and long-range aircraft operating from North America, Iceland and Britain.

By early 1942, the U-boats had been pushed to the east coast of North and South America where there was no convoy system yet in place. A slaughter followed until convoys began to be introduced and the U-boats were pushed back into the mid-Atlantic.

From ‘the hunters’ to ‘the hunted’

U-boats were more effective at night, when detection was harder, as they were also more efficient and faster when operating on the surface. This meant winter, when the nights were longer, provided richer pickings. Yet despite the incredibly vivid depiction of the convoy in the winter of 1942 in The Good Shepherd, U-boats were increasingly becoming the hunted rather than the hunters by this time. Although horrific battles were fought when convoys were successfully intercepted, in all more than 80 per cent of Allied convoys crossed the Atlantic entirely unscathed, and after a renewed effort in the first half of 1943, the Allies were able to finally defeat the u-boats by May 1943. That month, some 41 U-boats were sunk – a totally unsustainable number that led to their withdrawal.

The Battle of the Atlantic was a brutal one in which nearly 38,000 British sailors alone lost their lives, while a staggering 79 per cent of U-boat crewmen died – the worst of any part of the German armed services. Incredible deeds of heroism were carried out in the battle by both sides, and one that was often fought against a further enemy – the cruel Atlantic Ocean itself.

The importance of this immense battle, and the extraordinary human drama carried out, deserves its time on the big screen – and if any man can deliver this to a wider audience, it is Tom Hanks. Hopes for Greyhound are high…

James Holland is a historian, writer and broadcaster who has presented and written programmes for the BBC, Channel 4, National Geographic, History and Discovery, and is co-founder of Chalke Valley History Festival

Greyhound will premiere on Apple TV+ on 10 July 2020


The Cullinan is estimated to have formed in Earth's mantle transition zone at a depth of 410–660 km (255–410 miles) and reached the surface 1.18 billion years ago. [3] It was found 18 feet (5.5 m) below the surface at Premier Mine in Cullinan, Transvaal Colony, by Frederick Wells, surface manager at the mine, on 26 January 1905. It was approximately 10.1 centimetres (4.0 in) long, 6.35 centimetres (2.50 in) wide, 5.9 centimetres (2.3 in) deep, and weighed 3,106 carats (621.2 grams). [4] Newspapers called it the "Cullinan Diamond", a reference to Sir Thomas Cullinan, who opened the mine in 1902. [5] It was three times the size of the Excelsior Diamond, found in 1893 at Jagersfontein Mine, weighing 972 carats (194.4 g). Four of its eight surfaces were smooth, indicating that it once had been part of a much larger stone broken up by natural forces. It had a blue-white hue and contained a small pocket of air, which at certain angles produced a rainbow, or Newton's rings. [6]

Shortly after its discovery, Cullinan went on public display at the Standard Bank in Johannesburg, where it was seen by an estimated 8,000–9,000 visitors. In April 1905, the rough gem was deposited with Premier Mining Co.'s London sales agent, S. Neumann & Co. [7] Due to its immense value, detectives were assigned to a steamboat that was rumoured to be carrying the stone, and a parcel was ceremoniously locked in the captain's safe and guarded on the entire journey. It was a diversionary tactic – the stone on that ship was fake, meant to attract those who would be interested in stealing it. Cullinan was sent to the United Kingdom in a plain box via registered post. [8] On arriving in London, it was conveyed to Buckingham Palace for inspection by King Edward VII. Although it drew considerable interest from potential buyers, Cullinan went unsold for two years. [4]

Presentation to Edward VII Edit

Transvaal Prime Minister, Louis Botha, suggested buying the diamond for Edward VII as "a token of the loyalty and attachment of the people of the Transvaal to His Majesty's throne and person". [9] In August 1907, a vote was held in the Legislative Council [10] on the Cullinan's fate, and a motion authorising the purchase was carried by 42 votes in favour to 19 against. Initially, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, then British Prime Minister, advised the king to decline the offer, but he later decided to let Edward VII choose whether or not to accept the gift. [11] Eventually, he was persuaded by Winston Churchill, then Colonial Under-Secretary. For his trouble, Churchill was sent a replica, which he enjoyed showing off to guests on a silver plate. [12] The Transvaal Colony government bought the diamond on 17 October 1907 for £150,000, [13] which adjusted for pound-sterling inflation is equivalent to £15 million in 2016. [14] Due to a 60% tax on mining profits, the Treasury received some of its money back from the Premier Diamond Mining Company. [15]

The diamond was presented to the king at Sandringham House by Agent-General of the colony, Sir Richard Solomon, on 9 November 1907 – his sixty-sixth birthday – in the presence of a large party of guests, including the Queen of Sweden, the Queen of Spain, the Duke of Westminster and Lord Revelstoke. [16] The king asked his colonial secretary, Lord Elgin, to announce that he accepted the gift "for myself and my successors" and that he would ensure "this great and unique diamond be kept and preserved among the historic jewels which form the heirlooms of the Crown". [12]

Cutting process Edit

The king chose Joseph Asscher & Co. of Amsterdam to cleave and polish the rough stone into brilliant gems of various cuts and sizes. Abraham Asscher collected it from the Colonial Office in London on 23 January 1908. [17] He returned to the Netherlands by train and ferry with the diamond in his coat pocket. [13] Meanwhile, to much fanfare, a Royal Navy ship carried an empty box across the North Sea, again throwing off potential thieves. Even the captain had no idea that his "precious" cargo was a decoy. [18]

On 10 February 1908, the rough stone was split in half by Joseph Asscher at his diamond-cutting factory in Amsterdam. [19] At the time, technology had not yet evolved to guarantee the quality of modern standards, and cutting the diamond was difficult and risky. After weeks of planning, an incision 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) deep was made to enable Asscher to cleave the diamond in one blow. Making the incision alone took four days, and a steel knife broke on the first attempt, [4] but a second knife was fitted into the groove and split it clean in two along one of four possible cleavage planes. [20] In all, splitting and cutting the diamond took eight months, with three people working 14 hours per day to complete the task. [4]

"The tale is told of Joseph Asscher, the greatest cleaver of the day," wrote Matthew Hart in his book Diamond: A Journey to the Heart of an Obsession (2002), "that when he prepared to cleave the largest diamond ever known … he had a doctor and nurse standing by and when he finally struck the diamond … he fainted dead away". [21] Lord Ian Balfour, in his book Famous Diamonds (2009), dispels the fainting story, suggesting it was more likely Joseph would have celebrated, opening a bottle of champagne. [17] When Joseph's nephew Louis heard the story, he exclaimed "No Asscher would ever faint over any operation on any diamond". [22]

Cullinan produced 9 major stones of 1,055.89 carats (211.178 g) in total, [23] plus 96 minor brilliants and some unpolished fragments weighing 19.5 carats (3.90 g). [24] All but the two largest stones – Cullinans I and II – remained in Amsterdam by arrangement as the fee for Asscher's services, [25] until the South African government bought them (except Cullinan VI, which Edward VII had purchased and given to his wife Queen Alexandra in 1907), and the High Commissioner for Southern Africa presented them to Queen Mary on 28 June 1910. [12] Mary also inherited Cullinan VI from Alexandra, and she left all her Cullinan diamonds to her granddaughter Elizabeth II in 1953. [26] Cullinans I and II are part of the Crown Jewels, [2] which belong to the Queen in right of the Crown. [27]

Asscher sold the minor stones to the South African government, which distributed them to Queen Mary Louis Botha, then prime minister of South Africa the diamond merchants Arthur and Alexander Levy, who supervised the cutting of Cullinan [28] and Jacob Romijn (later Romyn), who co-founded the first trade union in the diamond industry. [29] Some were set by Mary into a long platinum chain, which Elizabeth has never worn in public, saying that "it gets in the soup". [30] In the 1960s, two minor Cullinan diamonds owned by Louis Botha's heirs were analysed at the De Beers laboratory in Johannesburg and found to be completely free of nitrogen or any other impurities. [31] Cullinans I and II were examined in the 1980s by gemologists at the Tower of London and both graded as colourless type IIa. [32]

Cullinan I Edit

Cullinan I, or the Great Star of Africa, is a pendeloque-cut brilliant weighing 530.2 carats (106.04 g) and has 74 facets. [33] It is set at the top of the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross which had to be redesigned in 1910 to accommodate it. Cullinan I was surpassed as the world's largest cut diamond of any colour by the 545.67-carat (109.134 g) brown Golden Jubilee Diamond in 1992, [34] but is still the largest clear cut diamond in the world. [35] In terms of clarity, it has a few tiny cleavages and a small patch of graining. The 5.89 cm × 4.54 cm × 2.77 cm (2.32 in × 1.79 in × 1.09 in) diamond is fitted with loops and can be taken out of its setting to be worn as a pendant suspended from Cullinan II to make a brooch. [36] Queen Mary, wife of George V, often wore it like this. [37] In 1908, the stone was valued at US$2.5 million (equivalent to US$52 million in 2019) [38] – two and a half times the rough Cullinan's estimated value. [39]

Cullinan II Edit

Cullinan II, or the Second Star of Africa, is a cushion-cut brilliant with 66 facets weighing 317.4 carats (63.48 g) set in the front of the Imperial State Crown, [33] below the Black Prince's Ruby (a large spinel). [40] It measures 4.54 cm × 4.08 cm × 2.42 cm (1.79 in × 1.61 in × 0.95 in). The diamond has a number of tiny flaws, scratches on the table facet, and a small chip at the girdle. Like Cullinan I, it is held in place by a yellow gold enclosure, which is screwed onto the crown. [36]

Cullinan III Edit

Cullinan III, or the Lesser Star of Africa, is pear-cut and weighs 94.4 carats (18.88 g). [33] In 1911, Queen Mary, wife and queen consort of George V, had it set in the top cross pattée of a crown that she personally bought for her coronation. [41] In 1912, the Delhi Durbar Tiara, worn the previous year by Mary instead of a crown at the Delhi Durbar, where her husband wore the Imperial Crown of India, was also adapted to take Cullinans III and IV. [42] In 1914, Cullinan III was permanently replaced on the crown by a crystal model. Today, it is most frequently worn in combination with Cullinan IV by Elizabeth II as a brooch. In total, the brooch is 6.5 cm (2.6 in) long and 2.4 cm (0.94 in) wide. [43] Cullinan III has also been used as a pendant on the Coronation Necklace, where it occasionally replaced the 22.4-carat (4.48 g) Lahore Diamond. [44] [45]

Cullinan IV Edit

Cullinan IV, also referred to as a Lesser Star of Africa, is square-cut and weighs 63.6 carats (12.72 g). [33] It was also set in the base of Queen Mary's Crown but was removed in 1914. On 25 March 1958, while she and Prince Philip were on a state visit to the Netherlands, Queen Elizabeth II revealed that Cullinan III and IV are known in her family as "Granny's Chips". They visited the Asscher Diamond Company, where Cullinan had been cut 50 years earlier. It was the first time the Queen had worn the brooch publicly. During her visit, she unpinned the brooch and offered it for examination to Louis Asscher, nephew of Joseph Asscher, who split the rough diamond. Aged 84, he was deeply moved that the Queen had brought the diamonds with her, knowing how much it would mean to him seeing them again after so many years. [46]

Cullinan V Edit

Cullinan V is an 18.8-carat (3.76 g) heart-shaped diamond set in the centre of a platinum brooch that formed a part of the stomacher made for Queen Mary to wear at the Delhi Durbar in 1911. The brooch was designed to show off Cullinan V and is pavé-set with a border of smaller diamonds. It can be suspended from the VIII brooch and can be used to suspend the VII pendant. It was often worn like this by Mary. [44]

Cullinan VI Edit

Cullinan VI is marquise-cut and weighs 11.5 carats (2.30 g). [33] It hangs from the brooch containing Cullinan VIII and forming part of the stomacher of the Delhi Durbar parure. Cullinan VI along with VIII can also be fitted together to make yet another brooch, surrounded by some 96 smaller diamonds. The design was created around the same time that the Cullinan V heart-shaped brooch was designed, both having a similar shape. [47]

Cullinan VII Edit

Cullinan VII is also marquise-cut and weighs 8.8 carats (1.76 g). [33] It was originally given by Edward VII to his wife and consort Queen Alexandra. After his death she gave the jewel to Queen Mary, who had it set as a pendant hanging from the diamond-and-emerald Delhi Durbar necklace, part of the parure. [48]

Cullinan VIII Edit

Cullinan VIII is an oblong-cut diamond weighing 6.8 carats (1.36 g). [33] It is set in the centre of a brooch forming part of the stomacher of the Delhi Durbar parure. Together with Cullinan VI it forms a brooch. [47]

Cullinan IX Edit

Cullinan IX is smallest of the principal diamonds to be obtained from the rough Cullinan. It is a pendeloque or stepped pear-cut stone, weighs 4.39 carats (0.878 g), and is set in a platinum ring known as the Cullinan IX Ring. [49]

World War II [ edit | edit source ]

After 15 years of fast passenger service along the West Coast, Yale was laid up in 1935 in 1940 the national emergency resulting from the outbreak of World War II in Europe brought her back into use. She was used this time as a dormitory ship in Alaskan waters. The United States Navy again acquired her in April 1943 and in August she was commissioned as USS Greyhound (IX-106) on 8 August 1943 with Lieutenant Commander W. N. VanDenburgh in command. She was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the greyhound, a breed of tall, slender, swift hound with a narrow pointed head.

After brief service Greyhound decommissioned on 31 March 1944, and began duty as a floating barracks for personnel at various Puget Sound training schools. She was placed out of service on 9 March 1948 and her name was struck 18 June 1948. She was turned over to the Maritime Commission 12 November 1948 and placed with the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Olympia, Washington until 5 June 1949 when she was sold for scrapping.

Summary of ASME BPVC Section IX – Part 1

Section IX is a reference document for the qualification of material joining (welding, brazing, and plastic fusing) processes, used by various construction codes such as Section I, III, IV, VIII, XII, etc.

NOTE: The different material joining processes covered in Section IX are

The ASME BPVC Section IX is divided into four parts, Namely

  • Part QG: Contains General Requirements for all material – joining processes (viz. Welding, Brazing and Plastic Fusing)
  • Part QW: Contains requirements for Welding
  • Part QB: Contains requirements for Brazing
  • Part QF: Contains requirements for Plastic Fusing

Note: Part QG General Requirements and Part QF Plastic Fusing were added in the 2013 Edition of ASME Section IX.

Since our focus is on welding henceforth we will discuss the two parts only, i.e. Part QG (General requirements with a focus on welding) and Part QW (Requirements for welding).

Part QW is further divided into five articles, these are

  • Article 1. Welding – General requirements for welding
  • Article 2. Procedure qualification for welding
  • Article 3. Performance qualifications for welders and welding operators
  • Article 4. Welding data
  • Article 5. Standard welding procedure specifications (SWPS)

These articles contain general references and guides that apply to welding procedure specification, Procedure qualification and welder performance qualifications such as positions, type and purpose of various mechanical tests, acceptance criteria, and the applicability of Section IX.

We will discuss part QG of ASME Section IX in this article:

Part QG gives general guidelines for the following

QG 101: Procedure specification: For each material joining process there should be a procedure specification, these procedure specifications are termed as

  • Welding Procedure Specification – WPS (for Welding)
  • Brazing Procedure Specification – BPS (for Brazing)
  • Fusing Procedure Specification – FPS (for Fusing)

Contents of a Procedure specification: The procedure specification i.e. A Welding Procedure Specification (for Welding) contains parameters related to the welding process along with the values or range (as applicable) required to produce a sound weld. These parameters have been termed as variables by ASME. Variables are of three types

  • Essential Variables
  • Non-Essential variables
  • Supplementary Essential Variables

Essential Variables (For WPS – QG-105.1 & QW-251.2): A change in the essential variable is considered to affect the mechanical properties (other than toughness) of the welded joint. Hence the WPS must be requalified if the essential variable is changed.

Supplementary Essential Variables (QG-105.3 & QW-401.1): A change in the supplementary essential variable will affect the toughness properties of the joint, heat-affected zone, or base material. Hence supplementary essential variables become additional essential variables in situations where procedure qualification requires toughness testing. When procedure qualification does not require the addition of toughness testing, supplementary essential variables are not applicable.

Nonessential Variables (QG-105.4 & QW-251.3): Nonessential variables are those in which a change can be made without the requalification of the existing WPS since it is not considered to affect the mechanical properties of the joint. Though a change in the nonessential variable doesn’t require the requalification of the WPS, still it should be properly addressed in the welding procedure specification (WPS).

QG 102: Procedure Qualification Record: A Test coupon is welded based on the variables given in the proposed welding procedure specification (PWPS), then that test coupon is sent to the lab for destructive tests. After a satisfactory report of the destructive test, we say that the proposed welding procedure specification (PWPS) is qualified. This entire process of qualifying the proposed WPS is known as procedure qualification and the entire data i.e. the real-time data (or variables) recorded during the welding of test coupon along with the lab report of destructive test is known as Procedure Qualification Record (PQR).

Why procedure qualification is required?

The purpose of qualifying the procedure specification is to prove that the proposed welding procedure is capable of producing weld joints having the required mechanical properties for the intended application.

Qualification of the proposed welding procedure specification (PWPS) demonstrates the mechanical properties of the welded joint, and not the skill of the welder or welding operator.

The PQR shall be produced to the Authorized Inspector whenever required. One welding procedure specification (WPS) may be supported by one or more PQR(s), and one procedure qualification record (PQR) may be used to support one or more welding procedure specification(s).

Contents of a procedure qualification record (PQR)

The procedure qualification record (PQR) shall contain

  • All the real-time values (or range) of all essential variables (Mandatory) recorded during welding of the test coupon,
  • Values of all non-essential variables (as required) recorded during welding of the test coupon
  • Values of supplementary essential variables (if toughness test is required) recorded during welding of the test coupon
  • Lab test report of the welded test coupon

QG 103: Performance Qualification: Since, Part QG is focused on general requirements for welding, brazing, and plastic fusing. Hence, it talks about the performance qualifications for all material joining processes viz. welding, brazing, and plastic fusing. But since, our area of interest is welding only hence this discussion is restricted to welding only.

Performance qualification for welders (or welding operators) is carried out for checking the capability of that person to produce a sound weld.

QG 104: Performance Qualification Record: All the real-time data observed during the welding of test coupons along with the mechanical test/Non-destructive test report is documented and is known as the performance qualification record. The performance qualification record shall be produced to the Authorized inspector whenever needed.

QG 105: Variables: The following variables have been explained under this topic

  • QG 105.1: Essential Variables for procedure specification
  • QG 105.2: Essential Variables for performance qualification
  • QG 105.3: Supplementary Essential Variables
  • QG 105.4: Non-Essential Variables
  • QG 105.5: Special Process Variables
  • QG 105.6: Applicability

QG 106: Organizational Responsibility: Three broad terms have been discussed under this topic.

  1. Organizational responsibility for procedure qualifications (QG 106.1)
  2. Organizational responsibility for performance qualification (QG 106.2)
  3. Simultaneous performance qualifications (QG 106.3)

The important points pertaining to organization responsibility are as follows

QG 106.1: Organizational responsibility for procedure qualifications: The Organization shall be fully responsible for the qualification of their procedure specification. Welding of test coupons shall be done under the full supervision and control of the qualifying organization and the person involved in this qualification process shall be a direct employee of that organization or shall be from an organization hired on contract for the welding services.

The following activities can be subcontracted, provided the organization accepts the full responsibility, these are

  • Preparation of test coupon
  • preparation of test specimens (after complete welding)
  • Mechanical test or destructive test of those specimens

Two or more companies with different names but working under the same corporate ownership can use a single Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), provided all the criteria of ASME section IX has been fulfilled.

QG 106.2: Organizational responsibility for performance qualifications: the performance qualification test shall be carried out only after the qualification of Welding procedure specification (WPS).

The person involved in welding of test coupons for the qualification of welding procedure specification (WPS) shall be qualified for welding within the ranges specified for performance qualification for that particular welding process.

The performance qualification test shall be carried out under the full supervision and control of the organization. However, the following activities may be subcontracted

  • Preparation of test coupon
  • preparation of test specimens (after complete welding)
  • Mechanical test or destructive test of those specimens

The successfully qualified welders (or welding operators) shall be issued a number/letter or Symbol by the organization, for identification purposes.

QG 106.3: Simultaneous performance qualifications: Two or more different organizations can participate in association to collectively qualify one or more welders and may share the information among themselves. During simultaneous performance qualifications, each participating organization shall be represented by an employee of that organization designated responsibility for that purpose.

QG 107: Ownership Transfers: When a new owner acquires an Organization, then the Welding procedure specification (WPS), procedure qualification record (PQR), and the welder’s performance record of that organization remain valid for the new owner (with some conditions). Hence separate requalification is not required.

QG 108: Qualifications Made to Previous Editions: The welding procedure specification (WPS), procedure qualification record (PQR), and welder’s performance qualifications made with respect to any previous version of ASME Section IX shall remain valid and do not require any revision except as specified by QW 420. However, qualification for a new welding procedure specification and performance qualification shall be carried out in accordance with the latest edition of ASME Section IX.

QG 109: Definitions: Several definitions related to welding have been given in part QG 109. These definitions can be found on page no. 4 through page no. 14.

Please click here to read the next part of this article.

(Note: The purpose of this article is to give a general guideline to the readers and it shall not be considered as a substitute of code. For full terms and conditions please read ASME Section IX, 2017 edition.)

Please watch this video (given below) for a better understanding of Part QG of ASME Section IX

Sandeep Anand

I am a Mechanical Engineer with more than ten years of work experience in the field of welding and NDT.

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Student Outcomes

Students who graduate from VET courses are surveyed approximately 6 months after they have completed their training. For more information on the statistics provided in this section, including the different levels (course, field of education, all fields of education) of data available please select the Learn more button below.

Satisfied with Training

Percentage of graduates in the Society and Culture field who were satisfied with the training (Certificate III).

Improved Work Status

Percentage of graduates in the Society and Culture field who started/expanded a business or who have a new job, more highly skilled work, a promotion or higher pay (Certificate III).


The middle of the range of salaries earned by graduates in the Society and Culture field starting their first ever full-time job after graduating (Certificate III).

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Greyhound III IX-106 - History

Fulenwider helped shape the prosperous, booming Denver metro area we know today—and we’re at the forefront of building our region’s tomorrow. Our combination of experience, creativity, and versatility has resulted in a variety of successful projects throughout Colorado, including Class A office buildings, shopping centers, resort and urban condominiums, master-planned business parks, multi-family and master-planned residential communities and a world class ski resort. Over 115 years strong, Fulenwider has remained committed to a long-term vision of responsible growth for the region. We see development as transformation, bringing integrity, credibility and a pioneering spirit to every project and partnership we touch. That’s how you build a century of success, helping to create a better, more sustainable Denver region of which we can all be proud.

About Fulenwider

Key Staff

Our company has been an acknowledged leader in the Colorado real estate community for over 115 years. L.C. Fulenwider Sr. helped write the Colorado Real Estate License laws in the early 1900s. His grandson, Cal Fulenwider III, continues to hold Colorado Real Estate License No. 1, which originally belonged to his grandfather.

Since our beginning in 1904, we have built a reputation for innovating creative and practical ideas within Colorado’s real estate community. Proud of what we have accomplished, we continue to produce well-conceived, master-planned real estate projects and ventures of superior and lasting quality.

Our company is led by an experienced group of real estate professionals and decision makers.

Meet the team responsible for some of Colorado’s most innovative real estate projects.

Cal Fulenwider III was the President of L.C. Fulenwider, Inc. for more than 30 years. He is now the Chairman of the Board and CEO. Cal has played the key role in the strategic planning, development and management of approximately 7,500 acres surrounding Denver International Airport (DIA), including the 3,000+ acre Reunion Master Planned Community in Commerce City, Peña Station NORTH (formerly Denver International Business Center), and Peña Station NEXT, both at the front door of DIA. Prior to developing projects in the DIA area, Fulenwider was the Venture Manager for the 500,000 square foot Chase Bank building in downtown Denver and oversaw the development and management of numerous high-end residential projects, including Polo Club North, Polo Club North Homes, Polo Field West, and Larimer Place Condominiums. Cal is a founding member of the CU Real Estate Council and the DIA Business Partnership, now the Metro Denver Aviation Coalition. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in Real Estate from the University of Colorado.

Ferd Belz is President, in charge of all real estate for L.C. Fulenwider, Inc., the corporate entity for the Fulenwider family holdings. These holdings include 7,500 acres of land near Denver International Airport (DIA) as well as multiple other real estate assets in the Denver region. Ferd is currently leading the development effort for Pena Station NEXT, a 382-acre transit-oriented development (TOD) surrounding the first rail stop on the commuter line from DIA to downtown Denver. This TOD is a public-private partnership between L.C. Fulenwider, Inc., DEN Real Estate, and is the North American headquarters for Panasonic CityNOW.

Prior to joining Fulenwider, Ferd was the President of Cherokee Denver, LLC, the entity that owned the 50-acre redevelopment of the former Gates Tire & Rubber Factory in Denver. As President, he managed all aspects of the development, entitlements, public financing and environmental remediation for this transit-oriented, mixed-use project. The project was entitled for more than 7 million square feet of mixed commercial and residential uses and approved for more than $126 million of public financing.

During his long real estate career, Ferd has developed more than $1 billion of hotel and resort real estate nationally and internationally, as well as numerous commercial, residential, retail, and senior housing projects. The projects include several Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels, the Pepsi Center in Denver and Tabor Center in Denver. He is currently a partner in the redevelopment of the historic Denver Union Station into a mixed-use, retail, hotel and transit center project.

Ferd holds cum laude degrees in both architecture and engineering from the University of Kansas, and he began his career as a licensed architect. He is past Chair of the Downtown Denver Partnership, past Chair of the Board of the Auraria Foundation. Currently, he is treasurer and on the Board of the Civic Center Conservancy, on the Board and Secretary of the Metro State University Foundation, and on the Board of ULI Colorado.

Marcy Lujan has been with Fulenwider for over 25 years. Marcy is responsible for all aspects of financial management, to include analysis for investments, development and acquisitions, financial structuring for joint venture opportunities, securing operation and construction loans, and financial money management for the company. Her projects have been in class A & B office, hotel, multi-family (affordable housing), land development construction loans, and formation of metro districts.

Additionally, she oversees all day-to-day operation activities of the company and general management of Fulenwider business, ensuring that Fulenwider has the proper operations controls. Marcy graduated magna cum laude from Columbia College, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration and accounting.

Rick Wells is Sr. Vice President in charge of Real Estate Development for L.C. Fulenwider, Inc. Rick has been the master developer for several successful, large scale, urban infill redevelopment projects in the Denver area since 2000, many with public/private finance as a key component. These projects include the 61st and Peña transit-oriented development, the first phase of redevelopment at the former Gates Rubber Company TOD site, the former Children’s Hospital and Mercy Hospital sites in Denver, and the former Mile High Greyhound Park site in Commerce City.

Rick has provided consulting services through REGen, LLC to many Colorado cities and urban renewal authorities regarding master development and public private financing including: Salida, Durango, Thornton, Loveland, Commerce City, and Denver. Rick finished 20 years in the natural gas pipeline industry in 1999 as Executive V.P. of a $5 billion industry leading company. He holds a master’s degree in Business Administration and a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Colorado State University.

Mark Throckmorton joined Fulenwider in 1994 and has overseen multiple development and construction projects for the company, including the 270-acre Peña Station NORTH development, formerly Denver International Business Center, luxury single-family homes at Polo Club North and Polo Field West, multifamily apartments at The Heights by Marston Shores and Emerson Lofts, the Marriott Courtyard Hotel at DIA, the Corporate Office for Frontier Airlines, the High Plains office building and regional infrastructure and entitlements for Peña Station NORTH, and the Peña Station NEXT TOD Development.

Mark is a 39-year veteran of construction and development, having also constructed/developed many facilities in the Denver metropolitan area, including multiple churches, a library, recreation facilities, office buildings, warehouses, swimming pools, banks, tenant finishes, country clubs and more. Mark serves as an officer on the boards of several Metropolitan Districts, is Chairman of the Denver International Business Center Architectural Control Committee, is a LEED Accredited Professional, holds a Denver General Contractors license, and is a proud graduate of Colorado State University.

From the beginning, Fulenwider has been led by creative and resilient professionals with integrity, and it’s no different today. We built our brand, company and legacy from the inside out by empowering the region’s best, and we work with development partners who, above all else, are known for their values.

Greyhound III IX-106 - History

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            The True Story of the USS Kidd, the Ship Used to Film 'Greyhound'

            When it comes to World War II memories, the Merchant Marine doesn’t get as much love as it should. Leave it to Tom Hanks to shed a little light on just how dangerous the life of a merchant mariner really was.

            Merchant Mariners in World War II depended on armed Allied naval forces to protect them. The 2020 movie “Greyhound” takes place aboard one of those ships, a U.S. Navy destroyer. It was filmed aboard a real World War II-era destroyer, the USS Kidd.

            During wartime, the Merchant Marine becomes an activated component of the U.S. Naval Reserve. In World War II, crippling British shipping was a key tactic of the Axis pact, so Merchant Marine ships immediately became high-priority targets for Nazi submarines.

            These merchant seamen suffered an almost 4% overall casualty rate, compared to 2.94% for the Marine Corps, 2.08% for the Army (and Army Air Forces) and .88% for the Navy. It was a tough job, and they needed protection.

            In “Greyhound,” Hanks plays the skipper of a U.S. Navy destroyer, the USS Keeling (codenamed Greyhound). The Keeling is one of four Allied destroyers protecting a convoy of 37 shipping vessels and their crews. In the early days of the war, these convoys had to pass through the mid-Atlantic Gap, three days of sailing where air cover couldn’t help protect them.

            It was a real-life gap known as “The Black Pit,” the most dangerous days of the journey. Fletcher-class destroyers like the USS Kidd were critical in the convoys’ defenses. While the Keeling (the ship portrayed in “Greyhound”) was purely fictional, the Kidd on which the film was shot has a turbulent history and served only briefly in the Atlantic.

            The USS Kidd was launched in 1943 and named for Adm. Isaac C. Kidd, who was killed aboard the USS Arizona during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor -- the first American flag officer to die in World War II. The Kidd started its career on escort duty with battleships in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. Later in 1943, it sailed for the Pacific War.

            Kidd was part of the naval forces that hit some of the biggest names in the Pacific Theater: Rabaul, Bougainville, Tarawa, Guam and the Marianas. The ship was forced back to Pearl Harbor to make repairs in August 1944 but quickly returned to the fight. It arrived in time to support the February 1945 invasion of Okinawa, battering the island defenses, protecting the fleet from mines and shooting down kamikaze attacks.

            Tragically, the Kidd suffered its own kamikaze attack while repelling air raids from Japanese dive bombers and kamikazes on April 11, 1945. The direct hit killed 38 sailors and wounded 55. It continued firing as it fought to stay afloat and headed back to its task force. After the kamikaze attack, the USS Kidd’s war was over.

            By August, the Fletcher-class destroyer was on its way home to the United States via Pearl Harbor. It was in the Pacific Reserve Fleet from 1946 until the Korean War. In 1951, the USS Kidd was recommissioned and was used for shore bombardment and anti-submarine operations against North Korea until 1953. It continued anti-submarine and show-of-force missions throughout the early days of the Cold War until 1964, when it was finally decommissioned.

            USS Kidd would be preserved as a museum ship and moored in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. To this day, the vessel is the only World War II-era destroyer in its original World War II configuration. The Kidd is the only place anyone can view an authentic WWII destroyer as it would have sailed in 1945.

            This is likely why the producers of “Greyhound” chose to film aboard the Kidd instead of the other two Fletcher-class destroyers now moored as museum ships.