Kaweah AO-15 - History

Kaweah AO-15 - History

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A river in California named for the Kawia or Cahuilla tribe, a southern California group of the Shoshonean division of Uto-Aztecan Indians.

(AO-15: dp. 14,450; 1. 446'; b. 58'2"; dr. 25'6"; s. 11 k; cpl. 252; a. 2 5", 2 3", 2 .50 cal., 2 .30 cal.; cl. Kaweah)

Kaweah (AO-15) was launched 1919 by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, under USSB account; acquired by the Navy 20 October 1921; and commissioned 28 December 1921, Lt. Comdr. 0. Beuilagua, USNRF, in command.

After sea trials Kaweah departed New Orleans early January 1922 and arrived Philadelphia 18 January. She departed 14 March for a cruise to the Canal Zone and the Gulf of Mexico. She returned to Norfolk 7 May and decommissioned 15 August 1922.

Kaweah recommissioned 16 December 1940, Comdr. Charles B. McVay in command. From early 1941 until late fall, she made oil runs between ports on the East Coast and the Caribbean. She arrived Argentia, Newfoundland, 17 November for duty in the North Atlantic. For the next 14 months she operated between Iceland, Greenland, and Boston, supplying the fleet with gasoline and diesel oil. She departed New York 13 January 1943 with a cargo of diesel oil for Casablanca, returning New York 12 March. Kaweah made another round trip cruise to Casablanca in April before resuming fueling operations at Halifax, N.S., 26 June. For the remainder of 1943 she cruised in convoy between New England and Iceland supplying the fleet units with vital fuel.

For the duration of the war the oiler cruised along the North American coast, Greenland, and the Caribbean with aviation fuel and diesel oil. Throughout the war Kaweah remained almost constantly at sea on the important, neverending duty of keeping the fleet supplied with petroleum products. Following the cessation of hostilities 14 August 1945, Kaweah arrived Hampton Roads, Va., 26 September and decommissioned at Norfolk 16 November 1945. She was transferred to the WSA 28 May 1946 and sold to Boston Metals Co., Baltimore, for scrapping.

Alameda (AO-10) Class: Photographs

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

William Cramp and Sons used the plans of this ship, which the firm delivered in December 1916, to build the four tankers of the Alameda class.
Wm. Rockefeller was taken over by the Navy in late 1917 and was torpedoed on 18 May 1918 while carrying fuel to U.S. naval forces in Scotland.

Photo No. NH 105239
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command.

At the Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Va., on 7 March 1921.
Panoramic photograph by Crosby, "Naval Photographer," Portsmouth, Va.

Photo No. NH 103100
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command.

In reserve at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 5 June 1940.

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM.

Photographed on 13 December 1940 at the Brooklyn Navy Yard one week after being placed in full commission there.
Half of her armament of 2-5"/51 and 2-3"/50 guns is visible. S.S. Manhattan is on the far side of the pier.

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM.

Near the Norfolk Navy Yard on 9 October 1941.
Two more 3"/50 guns have been added aft and splinter protection (low bulwarks) has been added around all of her guns.

Photo No. 19-N-25815
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM.

Near the Norfolk Navy Yard on 17 March 1942.
The number "317" on her bow is unexplained.

The Kaweah Colony: A Socialist Settlement in the 1880’s

California&rsquos historic settlement patterns are far more diverse then what would first appear to be the case. In addition to the religious (San Bernardino, Compton, Whittier ), the ethnic (Solvang, Ft. Ross) and the timber company towns (Samoa, Westwood, McCloud), there are numerous spiritual, philosophical, labor and socialist undertakings in this state&rsquos history. This article is an overview of the labor/socialist origins of the Kaweah Colony, located in eastern Tulare County.

The period following the Civil War was a time, both nationally and internationally, in which there was rising dissatisfaction with capitalism as preferred of national economic model. An American socialist, Laurence Grodlund, wrote of Gwerman socialism in Co-operative Commonwealth, a publication which circulated in the United States. Labor activists in the San Francisco Bay Area became interested in Grodlund&rsquos description of a better way. Influenced by Grodlund and other prominent writers, a group of Bay Area residents, lead by the labor activists, organized the Kaweah Co-Operative Commonwealth (the Kaweah Colony). Its purpose was to patent the newly opened timbered resources of eastern Tulare County and use the timber as the basis for a new society. Eastern Tulare was largely inaccessible and thus of little interest to commercial timber interests. The participants applied for 53 patents covering 12,000 acres of land surrounding the forks of the Kaweah River. The Land Patent Office, suspicious of recent fraudulent patent activity in Humboldt County, was slow to process the claims. Assuming success, and perhaps encouraged by the land agents to move forward, the Kaweah Commonwealth was launched without the patents. Funds were not only raised by the participants as part of a buy-in, but also from national and European sources as well. Many of the members never lived at Kaweah, but active clubs supporting Kaweah existed in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, and New York. The colony was begun, and its principal undertaking, starting in 1886, was the construction of an 18 mile road over a four year period to access the standing timber resources. The plan was that the logs were to be cut, milled, and then hauled to market. In terms of daily life, the colony has its own medium of exchange, wherein all participants were paid, based upon the time devoted to Colony undertakings. The time credits could be exchanged for meals and goods at the Colony store. Recognizing that all labor was valuable, all work was credited at the same exchange rate.

The Colony began at Arcady, up from Three Rivers. As most labor and resources were devoted to the road construction, few other prominent improvements were developed other than improvised road construction camps. The Colony received a death blow, when, at the same time that the road was completed in 1890, Congress created Sequoia National Park, with the surrounding lands dedicated to national forest. As the Land Office had never taken final action on the colonists land patents, their work was for naught. Their land claims were rejected and they were now trespassers, charged with stealing timber resources from the federal lands.

By 1890, colony constructed buildings in Kaweah, including a hall for dining and meetings, a blacksmith shop, a print shop, a barn and a blacksmith shop. The post office still stands (although in a different location), and the colonist&rsquos road was used by the Park Service for many years as the only road to the sequoia groves. Among other accomplishments, the colonists published a newspaper, the Kaweah Commonwealth (still published today.)

By 1892, most of the Colony had disbanded. Its peak population is estimated at about 300 individuals, and membership peaked at 500.

For further reading, I recommend California&rsquos Utopian Society (Yale Western Americana Paperbound, 1953 by Robert Hine) and Co-Operative Dreams: A History of the Kaweah Colony (Raven River Press, 1999 by Jay O&rsquoConnell).

William W. Abbott is a partner at Abbott & Kindermann, LLP. For questions relating to this article or any other California land use, real estate, environmental and/or planning issues contact Abbott & Kindermann, LLP at (916) 456-9595.

Afterword: Co-Operative Dreams

One duty only remains to those whose hearts were with Kaweah as a cooperative experiment it is to let the truth be known. And is there no remedy, then, for the evils that oppress the poor? And is there no surety that the day is coming when justice and right shall reign on earth? I do not know but I believe, and I hope, and I trust. (Burnette Haskell, Kaweah, November 1891)

This narrative grew out of an interest in local history. It has grown far beyond that. It is a story that epitomizes California and even America. This is not simply because of the prominence of such issues as land, labor, and conservation. Kaweah’s story is California’s in the utterance of a single word — dream. The California Dream. Co-Operative Dreams.

Historian Kevin Starr used the word in the title of his several volumes of California history. The first volume, Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915, ends with a variation on Wallace Stegner’s observation that California is like the rest of the United States, only more so.

In a very real sense [Starr wrote], the California dream was the American dream undergoing one of its most significant variations. The hope raised by promotional writers… was the simple yet subtle hope for a better life animating America since its foundation. California provided a special context for the working-out of this aspiration, intensified it, indeed, gave it a probing, prophetic edge in which the good and evil of the American dream was sorted out and dramatized. In 1915, after sixty-five years of statehood, as, north and south, great expositions opened their gates, California, like America itself, remained an intriguing, unanswered question.

How apt this is to Kaweah, where the California dream underwent significant variation. Where hope was raised by promotional writers. Where a special context was provided for the working-out of aspirations. Where intriguing, unanswered questions certainly remain. And isn’t the story of California filled with individuals who failed to achieve their dream? They include the countless seekers who came up short in the diggings of the Gold Rush the settlers seeking land enough to raise food and family who were unable to compete with the wealthy land barons the immigrants and economic refugees who envisioned eating the plentiful grapes right off the vine but instead became a rootless migrant workforce even the starstruck youths coming to Hollywood to achieve fame and fortune only to end up desperate souls on a boulevard of broken dreams.

Starr reminds us that a culture that fails to internalize some understanding of its past tragedies and past ideal has no focus upon the promise of the future nor the dangers of the present. In that way, he maintains, the elusiveness or failure of the California dream can prove a blessing. Only by remembering those who struggled but failed can we further today’s struggle for value and corrective action. “Old in error,” Starr wrote, “California remains an American hope.”

From the very beginning, the story of Kaweah was a human story of flesh and blood and passion and hope. And while it centered on the dream of cooperation, it was a story of individuals.

There has long been a popular perception that the Kaweah Colony was destroyed by the bickering within. While we have seen that this was certainly a contributing factor to its demise, it is hoped that this book has shown there was much more at the heart of the problem. One reason for this perception, however, was the writings of Burnette Haskell. Even though he blamed governmental persecution and the long arm of capitalist monopolies for the demise of the Colony, in the end (and more than once in print), he assigned blame to the failings of “too many average men.” Disgusted with everyone’s actions but his own, Haskell wrote that “men are not yet civilized enough to do right for right’s sake alone and to labor for the love of production itself.” Never once did he concede that legal or management mistakes he, himself, may have made were a factor in the Colony’s demise. With our knowledge of Haskell, this is hardly surprising.

Thus we can say that Haskell became disillusioned with cooperation because of the weakness of the individual. In his mind, the plan for cooperation did not fail the individuals who took part did. Haskell once commented on the sheer variety of those individuals involved.

The list of membership [Haskell wrote] itself is a curious study. It is the United States in microcosm among the members are old and young, rich and poor, wise and foolish, educated and ignorant, worker and professional man, united only by the common interest in Kaweah. There were temperance men and their opposites, churchmen and agnostics, free-thinkers, Darwinists and spiritualists, bad poets and good, musicians, artists, prophets, and priests. There were dress-reform cranks and phonetic spelling fanatics, word-purists and vegetarians. It was a mad, mad world, and being so small its madness was the more visible.

While Haskell noted that the cross section of individuals was reflective of America itself, he also felt that so varied a group was perhaps not the best of situations in such tight quarters, for while this “mad, mad world” may have been united in a common interest — Kaweah — they certainly were not united in how best to achieve its goal: cooperative utopia.

Little has been said in this book of other cooperative utopian experiments, which preceded and followed Kaweah, or of Kaweah’s place amongst them. The consideration of other colonies shall be left to other studies, for it is far too encompassing a subject to adequately deal with here. But a cursory look at some of the better known American community experiments — from Brook Farm to the Oneida Community, from the Mormons to the Shakers — reveals that those with the greatest longevity were those that relied on devotion to religious or spiritual doctrine. Those that were structured around political doctrine did not fare as well. Perhaps this is due to the almost impossible task of reconciling a society based on cooperation with a strong spirit of individualism. Strong-minded individuals are needed to achieve productivity, but that same spirit can be anathema to a system of enforced cooperation, which is what any political cooperative is by definition. Oftentimes these systems of enforced cooperation become corrupted of their original intent — the good of the community — and the spirit of the individual becomes suppressed.

Such was the case some 25 years after the failure of the Kaweah experiment when, through a revolution Haskell probably would have at first cheered, a Bolshevik faction of Russian Marxists created Communist rule in Russia. Confronted with the formidable task of transforming the large, backward country into a leading industrial nation of the twentieth century, the great Soviet experiment eventually evolved and was controlled by Stalin’s brand of totalitarianism.

Perhaps the ultimate example of enforced cooperation (and nationalist zeal) followed during a time of worldwide economic turmoil. The National Socialist German Worker’s Party became the Nazi party, and its Fuhrer will forever be considered the embodiment of evil fascism.

John Humphrey Noyes, founder of the Oneida Community, once wrote that “a vast spiritual and intellectual excitement is one thing and the institutions that rise out of it are another. We must not judge the excitement by the institutions.” We will not, then, judge the individuals of Kaweah and the excitement they felt for their ideals by the failure of Kaweah as an institution. Nor will we, as Haskell has done, blame these individuals for that failing, although it is tempting to assign some individual blame to Haskell himself. Instead, let us admire the effort — the spiritual and intellectual excitement they displayed — and learn from the shortcomings so visible from our vantage point of 100 years of hindsight.

Haskell called Kaweah a microcosm for the United States, and in so much that Kaweah’s membership represented a sort of melting pot of individuals, that analogy holds true. America has always celebrated the spirit of the individual. America was founded on the liberties of the individual. The remarkable success of America, then, is that the spirit and liberty of the individual has somehow been integrated with the good of society. It is a precarious balance (where sometimes the good of society must be sacrificed to the rights of the individual), and one that was never achieved at Kaweah. This does not mean that we should not admire the effort these individuals who comprised Kaweah made toward that unachieved goal. Society, as well as individuals, can learn from the mistakes of the past. As Robert Hine observed, “from one more experiment in community life may yet emerge — like a phoenix, momentarily dusted with the disappointments of the past — a resplendent, reformed mankind gathered in the ideal society.”

Some never recovered from the disappointments of Kaweah. Haskell died a bitter, lonely, and broken man at the relatively young age of 50, only 16 years after the failure of the Colony. With his “belly full of cooperation, you bet,” he lost hope that any phoenix might rise from the ashes of his failed dreams.

Nearly 50 years after her days at Kaweah, Annie Haskell looked back. At 79 years of age, she wrote:

No use thinking of that day so long past—when Burnette and I were married my life, emotionally seemed to be like a troubled sea—the waves raged and the salt was bitter. I learned a little, I suffered much, and laughed a lot. If I had it all to relive—I wonder if I shouldn’t do exactly the same, even with knowledge added. I wonder.

Annie, following the end of her marriage and the death of Burnette Haskell, lived a long and full life. She found fulfillment in her son, Roth her career as a school teacher and ultimately in religion. Perhaps she learned, better than anyone from the difficulties surrounding Kaweah and her tumultuous life with its founder. It was only a few years after Kaweah, as her marriage was disintegrating and the dawning of a new year brought with it only the promise of “drunkenness, poverty, abuse, and neglect,” that Annie came to a realization:

Unless there is hope for me in me, myself—then there is nothing for me.

Only through the strength of individuals able to learn from failure and maintain hope in themselves can the dream of cooperation stay alive. And will that dream ever be fully realized? To echo Burnette Haskell’s words, I do not know but I believe, and I hope, and I trust.

SOURCES: As noted in text, Kevin Starr’s Americans and the California Dream 1850-1915 provided a launching pad for these final thoughts. Haskell’s Out West magazine article obviously furthered the discussion, and input was even garnered from John Humphrey Noyes’s History of American Socialisms (Hillary House Publisher, NY, 1961, originally published in 1870). Robert V. Hine’s California’s Utopian Colonies contributed a note of optimism. I thank Bob for that (and for a memorable lunch we shared at UCI’s University Club). And it is fitting that the final word comes (via a transcription by Oscar Berland) from Annie Haskell. Her diaries are one of the most brilliant primary sources any historian could dream to find.

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Kaweah AO-15 - History

1. North (American River) Grove: Consists of 6 standing and 2 prostrate trees from 2 to 12 feet in diameter. No reproduction. In Placer County at 5,100 feet elevation, on a small tributary of the Middle Fork of the American River. Inaccessible.

2. Calaveras Grove: About 50 acres of sequoias with more than 150 trees, of which at least 85 are 10 feet or more in diameter. One of the best known groves and the first to be publicized following its discovery in 1852. In Calaveras Big Trees State Park, 54 miles south of the North Grove, on a tributary of the North Fork of the Stanislaus River at 4,700 feet elevation. On a State highway.

3. Stanislaus Grove: A large, fine, privately owned grove of about 1,000 acres containing 947 trees, of which at least half are 10 feet or more in diameter. Includes one of the largest trees—the Agassiz Tree—which is 30 feet in diameter and 250 feet tall. Located 6 miles south of Calaveras Grove and on both sides of the North Fork of the Stanislaus River. Accessible only by trail.

4. Tuolumne Grove: A small grove of 25 fine specimens and also the Dead Giant, 29-1/2 feet in diameter. Covers about 20 acres. The first giant sequoias viewed by white man, in 1833, were probably in this grove or the nearby Merced Grove. Located near Crane Flat on the Big Oak Flat Road.

5. Merced Grove: Contains 20 large trees. Located 4 miles south of Tuolumne Grove.

6. Mariposa Grove: One of the most famous groves contains more than 200 trees 10 feet or more in diameter and thousands of younger trees. Includes the Grizzly Giant, also the Wawona Tree through which a tunnel was cut in 1881 for the passage of horse-drawn stage coaches. Located in the southwest corner of the park, 35 miles by highway from Yosemite Valley.

7. Fresno (Nelder) Grove: Now covers about 200 acres. Partly cut in the 1880's and later burned, but still contains many large trees and good reproduction. About 5 miles south of the Mariposa Grove.

8. McKinley (Dinkey Creek) Grove: A fine grove covering about 50 acres and containing 170 large trees but little reproduction. On Dinkey Creek, a tributary of the North Fork of Kings River, 38 miles southeast of the Fresno Grove.

9. Boole Tree Grove: 10. Converse Basin Forest: 11. Indian Basin: Remnants of a once fine forest (probably the most extensive) which covered about 6,000 acres but was almost completely cut over between 1862 and 1900 and later burned. The Boole Tree, one of the largest trees in the world, was left standing on the slopes of Converse Mountain. Some reproduction in spots. Located on Converse, Mill, and Indian Creeks, south tributaries of the Kings River.

12 to 16. Kings River Groves: A group of relatively small groves, mostly inaccessible, located south of the South Fork of the Kings River. Partly in private ownership and accessible only by trail.


17. General Grant Grove: A magnificent grove covering 140 acres, with many fine and very large trees, including the General Grant, General Lee, California, and other famous trees. This grove was preserved in the former General Grant National Park from 1890 to 1940 when it was included in the larger Kings Canyon National Park. Readily accessible by highway

18. Big Stump Grove: This entire grove was cut over but now has very dense reproduction in spots. Contains the Adam Stump, a remnant of one of the largest trees ever cut. Partly included in Kings Canyon National Park which was established by act of Congress of March 4, 1940.

19. Redwood Canyon (Redwood Mountain) Forest: Perhaps the best example of an all aged stand of giant sequoias. Covers more than 2,500 acres and contains thousands of these trees. Purchased in 1940 by the Federal Government from private owners for inclusion in Kings Canyon National Park. On Redwood Creek, a tributary of the North Fork of the Kaweah River. Accessible from the Generals Highway.

20. Lost Grove: A small but beautiful grove through which the Generals Highway passes. Covers 57 acres and contains 15 trees more than 10 feet in diameter. Near the northwest boundary of the park.

21. Muir Grove: One of the most beautiful groves. Covers 450 acres and contains many very large trees. Two separate groves—Pine Ridge and Skagway—are included with this area. In the northwest section of the park on tributaries of the North Fork of the Kaweah River.

22. Halstead (Suwanee) Grove: A small but attractive grove covering 70 acres west of the Marble Fork of the Kaweah River.

23. Giant Forest: The largest and finest forest of giant sequoias in the world, with many portions where other species of trees are practically excluded by the density of the large sequoias. Contains three of the largest known trees—General Sherman, Lincoln, and President—as well as hundreds of other giants. The forest covers 2,387 acres. Located between the Marble and Middle Forks of the Kaweah River, at 5,000 to 7,000 feet elevation, on the Generals Highway.

24. Redwood Meadow Groves: Five separate groves covering 400 acres. Several unusual features are found in these groves. There are 5 large, fire-killed standing sequoias (rare in the groves). The only known young sequoias growing upstream very far from the old groves are found here, with 2 trees, 2 and 3 feet in diameter, growing more than half a mile from any others. They are apparently not relics of a former stand in this vicinity. On the headwaters of the Middle Fork of the Kaweah River. Accessible only by trail.

25. Castle Creek Groves: Three hundred forty-five acres of widely scattered sequoias on the south slopes of the Middle Fork of the Kaweah River. Accessible only by trail.

26. Atwell Grove: A fine forest with many large trees and abundant reproduction. Covers 1,440 acres, including the more or less separate Redwood Creek Grove. Partially logged years ago. The highest elevation at which a giant sequoia is known to grow naturally (8,800 feet) is found here. This tree is 13.7 feet in base diameter and 140 feet tall. On the East Fork of the Kaweah River. Accessible from the Mineral King Road.

27. East Fork Grove: Covers 473 acres in the park and 321 acres in the Sequoia National Forest. A fire, years ago, divided this grove into two separate units. On the south side of the East Fork of the Kaweah River. Accessible by trail.

28. Paradise Ridge, Oriole, and Squirrel Creek Groves: Cover 230 acres of beautiful forest including several large specimens. Near the west boundary of the park, on the north side of the East Fork of the Kaweah River.

29. Coffeepot Canyon and Case Mountain Groves: Outside and west of the park. Cover about 200 acres. Few large trees.

30. Eden Grove: Covers 864 acres, with many large trees rather widely scattered. On the south side of the East Fork of the Kaweah River.

31. Horse Creek Grove: This grove was first reported in 1933. Covers 90 acres and contains approximately 70 trees more than 10 feet in diameter. On a tributary of the East Fork of the Kaweah River. Inaccessible.

32. Surprise Grove: 33. South Fork Groves: Three groves covering 665 acres, with many large trees. On the north side of the South Fork of the Kaweah River. Accessible only by trail.

34. Garfield Grove: A fine grove covering 1,356 acres, with many large specimens. The lowest elevation at which the giant sequoia is known to grow naturally (2,900 feet) is located beside the river below this grove. South of and on tributaries of the South Fork of the Kaweah River. Accessible only by trail.

35. Dillonwood Grove: A large grove containing many large and fine trees. Lower portion partly logged. Covers about 2,000 acres on the headwaters of the North Fork of the Tule River, partly within the park and partly within the Sequoia National Forest at 5,400 to 8,000 feet elevation.

36. Devils Canyon and Dennison Mountain Groves: Two small groves covering about 56 acres in the southwestern corner of the park. Inaccessible.

37. Rancheria Grove: A small grove on Bear Creek, a tributary of the North Fork of the Tule River.

38. Mountain Home Forest: A fine grove containing several hundred specimens and many interesting trees. One, the Hercules Tree, still lives despite the cutting of a large room in its heart many years ago. Another, the Sawed Off Tree, was cut completely through more than 50 years ago but is still standing. The area includes Balch Park, a 160-acre Tulare County Park. On the North Fork of the Middle Fork, Tule River. Accessible by road.

39. Crystal Springs Grove: A beautiful grove on Bear Creek below Mountain Home. Contains many interesting trees, including the Wishbone Tree, through which passes the old Mountain Home Road.

40. Maggie Mountain Grove: A small and rather inaccessible grove above Mountain Home on the North Fork of the Middle Fork of Tule River.

41. Hossack Grove: About 200 widely scattered trees on the divide between the north and south branches of the Middle Fork of Tule River. Inaccessible.

42. Belknap Grove: 43. McIntyre Grove: 44. Wheel Meadow Grove: A group of relatively small groves along the East Fork of the Tule River near Camp Nelson. Some groves accessible by road.

45. Black Mountain Grove: A large grove containing more than 500 large trees, on the slopes of Black Mountain between the Middle and South Forks of Tule River. Partly in the Tule River Indian Reservation.

46. Lloyd Meadow Grove: More than 100 large trees scattered for a distance of approximately 3 miles along Freeman Creek, a tributary of Kern River.

47. Red Hill Grove: A small inaccessible grove at the head of the South Fork of Tule River.

48. Long Meadow Grove: A small grove, accessible only by trail. On a tributary of the Kern River.

49. Powderhorn Grove: 52. Starvation Creek Grove: Small groves. The former is accessible by road, but the latter is rather inaccessible. On the headwaters of Deer Creek.


50. Rogers Camp (Peyrone) Grove: 51. Parker Peak Grove: Medium-sized groves, containing more than 100 scattered specimens in inaccessible country on the South Fork of Tule River.

53. Pack Saddle Grove: A grove of about 300 large but scattered trees, including one more than 22 feet in diameter and 280 feet tall. On South Creek, a tributary of the Kern River. Accessible by trail.

54. Deer Creek Grove: The most southerly grove of giant sequoias. Contains 31 large trees and some reproduction. Located about 6 miles north of the southern boundary of Tulare County on Deer Creek above Hot Springs. Accessible by road.

Kaweah AO-15 - History

As we have already stated, the first whites who after the trappers were attracted to what is now Tulare County, were those who sought to traffic with the Indians. But hard upon their heels came others, attracted hither by the luxuriant vegetation that grew all over the valley, but more especially along the deltas of the large streams. Along the Kaweah from where Wood's trading post stood to the mountains, was in those days an almost impenetrable swamp, and out of that swamp, at points a short distance from each other, issued the four main channels of the Kaweah, now known as St. John's, Mill creek, Packwood, and Outside creek and from this fact the while Kaweah delta took the name of the " Four Creek" country, and was the first settled portion of what is now Tulare County. This entire region at the time was in Mariposa County.

The earliest settlements were made on King's river, at what is now Centerville, and which was at that time in Tulare County. It is said that the bona-fide settlers of Tulare County were easy going, quiet, respectable people, but adventurers were attracted here from time to time who were " tough," and they made society somewhat rough for a time but they either killed each other off or left for new fields as civilization grew and made it uncomfortable for such characters. It has been claimed that there were about sixty white settlers in the county at the time of organization. This is disputed by some of the oldest residents now in the county. Very few if any of the first actual settlers are now living. Some, who settled in the " Four Creek" country as early as 1853,—a few of whom are yet living,— say they do not believe there was an actual white resident in the county when organized. Those who organized it did so to get the offices, and succeeded in electing themselves to places they sought, and the majority immediately returned to their homes in Mariposa County.

In the winter of 1852 the California Legislature provided for the organization of a new county, to be known as Tulare. The territory to be included within the boundaries of this county was almost precisely the same as that described as the Tulare valley, and adjacent water-sheds, with the addition of all the country to the east as far as the State line. Out of this has since been formed Inyo and a large portion of Fresno and Kern counties. In consequence of the Legislative act referred to, an expedition was fitted out at Mariposa, then an important mining point, and filled to overflowing with all kinds of adventurers, for the purpose of organizing the new county and " corraling" the offices. The expedition was headed by Major James D. Savage (whose tragical death has been described elsewhere in this volume), who as early as 1850 kept a trading post on Fresno river, and who was one of the four commissioners appointed to hold the first election in the new county. The other commissioners were: M. B. Lewis, John Boling and W. H. McMillen. There were in all the territory, previous to the arrival of this Mariposa expedition, not more than sixty-five men and no women but as the expedition exceeded that number somewhat, and not all the settlers were on hand to vote, the visitors chose whom they would to fill the county offices. Polling places were opened on the 10th day of July, at Pool's Ferry on King's river, and also under an oak tree between the St. John's and the foothills. Fifty-eight votes were cast at Pool's Ferry, and fifty-one under the oak tree. Walter H. Harvey was elected County Judge F. H. Sanford, County Attorney L. D. F. Edwards, Clerk William Dill, Sheriff A. B.. Gordon, Recorder Captain Joseph A. Tirey, Surveyor A. B Davis, Assessor J. C. Frankenberger, Treasurer and W. H. McMillen, Coroner. Davis failed to qualify as assessor, and Thomas McCormick was appointed to fill the vacancy. J. C. Frankenberger resigned the office of treasurer, and P. A. Rain bolt was appointed in his stead.

Of the foregoing officers elected, Edwards was killed by Bob Collins in a row, the next day after the expedition returned to Mariposa. Harvey killed Savage, the leader of the expedition, and there is not now living in the county a single man who took part in that election. Charley Wingfield, who was elected treasurer in 1886, and who died a few months later, was the last. Harvey died miserably of remorse and fear many years ago. He did not remain long in the county. Savage seems to have had many good qualities, and well thought of at the time. He was the Government Indian agent, and was succeeded by Colonel Thomas Baker, for whom Bakersfield was named. A few of the early settlers are yet living in the county and near Visalia. Among the few are A. H. Murray, who came from Missouri and settled on the south side of Mill creek, near Visalia, in 1852, where he has since resided. Judge S. C. Brown, of Visalia, settled there in 1852. Dr. John Cutler came to the county about the same date also Dick Chaton, Tom Willis, and a Hollander by the name of Stuefe. Wiley Watson was born in Georgia in 1812, came to California from Illinois and erected the first brick residence in Visalia, in the fall of 1860.

John A. Patterson and Jasper Harrell were among the early pioneers. The first actual settler in the county was William Campbell, who located on King's river. One Woods first located on the Kaweah river in 1850, about six miles from Visalia. He, with a number of others, attempted a settlement for the purpose of engaging in agricultural pursuits. He, with the majority of his party, were killed by the Indians before their buildings were all completed, a full account of which is given elsewhere. The location was designated Woodville, and was the first county seat.

The first case of a civil nature that came up for trial in the new county was before a justice of the peace, but was quite important, aside from its being the first. A young Indian had shot an arrow into a work ox belonging to a white man, crippling the animal severely. The whites were disposed, at first, to make an example of the young culprit without process of law, and punish him severely. Charley Wingfield and Jim Hale were sent to arrest the offender and bring him into court. They found the Indians little disposed to recognize the jurisdiction of the white man's court,—more particularly until they ascertained what the nature of the punishment was likely to be. Fearing trouble, the chief volunteered to go and bring the offender to Wingfield, and for that purpose Wingfield let him have his horse. Very soon the braves of the tribe began to gather around in squads of twos and threes, fully prepared for war and, when at last the chief made his appearance with the prisoner, the whole crowd started for the settlement, the Indians sullen, the whites apprehensive. There were eighteen of the latter, and about forty of the former, and it looked to the whites as if they had " bitten off more than they could chew." But they could not back out without sacrificing their prestige with the Indians so they assumed a bold attitude and saw it through. For two days and nights both sides maintained their position, neither disposed to yield anything. Finally the Indians consented to have the young offender tried-The trial was conducted in due form, and judgment rendered that the offender pay the owner of the ox fifty buckskins as damages. The Indians had watched the progress of the trial with profound interest, and the nature of the verdict was an agreeable surprise to them, as they knew of none other than physical punishment and they ever after cherished considerable regard for the white man's law. Had a more severe punishment been attempted in this case, it is more than likely that the infant settlement would have been destroyed.

Until 1853 the affairs of the county were managed by what was called the " Court of Sessions," composed of the county judge and two justices of the peace. This court held its first session October 4,1852, and was composed of Judge Harvey, W. J. Campbell and Loomis St. John. About all they did was to fill vacancies in county offices, as previously stated.

The first general election was held on the first Tuesday in November, 1852, but no record of its result can be found. The first grand jury was impaneled about the middle of 1853 no thorough record of its proceedings are to be found. Later in the year one Samuel Logo was tried, convicted, and sent to the penitentiary for two years, for assaulting an Indian with an intent to kill. This was the county's first representative at San Quentin. The first tax levy, fifty cents on the one hundred dollars, was made this year, 1853, and on September 7th of the same year a second general election was held. By this time there were a good many actual settlers in the county, and this election was conducted by actual settlers, and not by invaders from other counties.

At this election John Cutler was elected County Judge A. B. Gordon, Clerk O. K. Smith, Sheriff W. C. French, District Attorney C. R. Wingfield, Treasurer J. B. Hatch-Assessor E. Lyons, Surveyor, and A. J. Lawrence, A. H. Fraser, John Pool, Harry Borroughs, and Warren Mathews, Supervisors. Of these Judge Cutler is the only one alive and residing in the county. One hundred and eleven votes were cast at this election, of which fifty seven were Whig, the remainder Democratic, and at this election Visalia was chosen as the county seat by a vote of forty-four to forty-one. Sixteen voters failed to signify their preference for county seat.

The Supreme Court of the State, having decided that the legislative functions of the " Court of Sessions " were unconstitutional, and as new officers had in consequence been elected under the new law providing for county government, the local government of the county had become thoroughly established at this time.

The spoils of office were by no means great at this period. At the close of 1853 taxes were collected, but they amounted to but few dollars, and when Treasurer Wingfield went to Benicia, the then State capital, to make settlement, he had some difficulty in making himself known in his official capacity. The State officers had actually forgotten that there was such a county in the State as Tulare.

Resuming the early historical period, it may be said that the county did not make a rapid growth in population for several years after it was organized, as the population of the State at the time consisted principally of roving gold hunters. It has been previously stated that at the fall election of 1853, the county seat was changed from the village of Woodville to that of Visalia, and that the first settlers about Visalia were in 1852. It is also claimed that all except two of the first county officers met tragic or violent deaths in personal rencounters. The first courthouse was a log cabin surrounded by a cheap fence, and the jail consisted of four stumps of trees. Within this enclosure, each stump had an iron ring attached to it by a staple, to which culprits were chained. The several county officials carried the county records and public documents in their hats and pockets.

There are various versions of the county seat question. The files of the Delta give Woodville as the first. Mr. Pillsbury, in his interesting little volume issued in 1888, says that at the fall election in 1853, Visalia won the county seat by a vote of forty-four, to forty-one for Woodville. In the same work, when describing Visalia, he says: " When the county was organized in 1852, an effort was made to have the county seat located at Woodville, and that in 1854 the county was surveyed and Visalia's town site was laid out." The old files of the Delta state that the town was laid out in 1856. Elliott's history of the county states that the election was held in 1854, at which the county seat was established at Visalia. Two facts are indisputable. First, that the county seat was for a time at Woodville secondly, that there was an election, which established the county seat at Visalia, where the buildings were made ample for the transaction of public business at the time and for several years, until the growing population demanded more commodious quarters.


This year Visalia was laid out as a town, and derived its name from Nathaniel Vise, one of the first settlers. Visalia soon became a place of some importance, owing much to the overland stage line started about the time the town was laid out. The richer portions of the valley were covered with vast herds of stock, marking and marketing being about all the labor required, and fabulous prices were obtained. Consequently men accumulated great wealth with little effort. Hogs flourished here, as in no other region nutritious grasses and immense crops of acorns were at their disposal. The swine business, under such conditions, was a mine of wealth of itself. In those days, it is said that all the capital a young man needed was a half dozen pigs of the feminine gender, and he might confidently expect to retire from business with a competency in a few years. The crop of acorns were so immense as to seemingly surpass the bounds of the probable. To repeat some of the many wonderful stories of acorns we would be accused of romancing, if not of downright falsehood yet reliable old settlers assert that from 50 to 100 bushels of acorns from a tree was too common to be considered remarkable.

During this year the question of organizing a new county from a portion of Tulare and Los Angeles counties was agitated, to be known as Buena Vista County. This failed to materialize, but the continued agitation of county division resulted in the formation of Kern and Inyo counties in 1866.

During the year the Indians were committing depredations on the property and people in the Owen's river country.

July 2d, T. J. Goodale presented the editor of the Visalia Delta with some very fine apricots. The same issue of the paper speaks of having received by Wells-Fargo Express a batch of Eastern mail, which had been nearly one month in transit. This was about one month after the Delta was first issued, which was in June of that year.

Independence day of that year was celebrated in a patriotic manner. E. E. Calhoun was master of ceremonies. "Gem of the Ocean" was well rendered, Messrs. Barrows and Kline receiving special mention as fine singers. The Declaration of Independence was read by Hon. J. W. Freeman. S. C. Brown delivered a fine oration.

There were in the county that year the following post offices and postmasters : Visalia, H. A. Bostwick, postmaster King's River, James Smith Kinneysburg (White River), A. Reid Keysville, J. Caldwell Petersburg, A. D. Hight Goodhue's Crossing, H. G. McLean.

The overland stage from San Francisco to St. Louis arrived at Visalia Sunday and Wednesday mornings from Visalia to Los Angeles, via Kinneysburg, Petersburg and Keysville, arrived on the 8th and 23d of each month, and departed on the 1st and 15th. Three cents was the postage on a letter weighing half an ounce, from San Francisco to St. Louis, points in Arkansas and Texas all points east of that region required ten cents postage on half ounce letters.

The editor of the Delta in July of this year offered to wager a No. 1 watermelon that Tulare County could show more fat and furious babies than any other county in the State in proportion to population.

T. J. Goodale comes to the front again with fine fruit—-this time an apple of the Summer Queen variety thirteen and one-half inches in circumference.

About the same time, a Mr. Mead, engaged in freighting, arrived in Visalia with a twelve mule team and three wagons. He started from Stockton with 21,000 pounds of freight for Visalia, and 7,000 of feed for his team, making a total of 28,000 pounds. This was considered the largest load drawn such distance in California up to that time. Mead offered to take one of his mules, and in two weeks' time, for a wager of $2,000, beat the winning horse at the race to come off in a few days, and that he would put up a forfeit of $1,000 with any one disposed to accept his proposition. No mention is made of his offer being taken.

There was organized in Visalia this year a temperance society known as the Dashaway Association James D. Travis, President. This order flourished for a time.

The editor of the Delta mentions having received in Augusta delicious watermelon weighing eighty-seven pounds.

At the general election that year, T. M. Heston was elected to the Assembly W. M. Boring, County Judge John C. Reid, Sheriff John S. McGahey, Clerk E. Johnson, Treasurer S. C. Brown, District Attorney T. C. Hayes, Assessor H. C. Townsend, Public Administrator O. K. Smith, Superintendent of Schools. J. E. Scott, Surveyor J. D. P. Thompson, Coroner A. S. Worthly, J. T. Pemberton and E. Van Valkenburg, Supervisors. There were 908 votes cast at this election.

This year a gentleman in the county who had a large acreage of land under fence, which had a heavy growth of oak timber, sold the acorn crop for $1,800, to be gathered by the purchaser.

Mention is also made of the arrival of the stage with overland mail, being only eighteen days and twenty hours out of St. Louis, the quickest trip made up to that date. 1860.

January 21, the steamboat Visalia was completed, and designed to navigate the San Joaquin river between Stockton and Fresno city.

The Delta seems to have been dishing up Democratic food at this time, and in its columns March 31 we find it speaks as follows: " Friends of Seward and Greeley are talking of starting a black Republican paper in Visalia, and that there were some recent importations of office seekers in the county, silly enough to think they could be elected to the State Senate and other offices on the Republican ticket."

April, the same year, is the announcement : "Good news for bachelors. A short time since there arrived in this county, from Texas, a family composed of the father, mother, twenty-one daughters and one son!" During the same week, and from the same State, another family arrived, in which were fourteen unmarried daughters.

June 16,the paper states that "the half dozen Black Republicans in this county, aided and assisted by he bulkheaders and pork inspectors of San Francisco, and their agents in this county and senatorial district, are determined to have an organ in Visalia, and for that purpose have dispatched an agent to San Francisco to purchase the material necessary to carry out their schemes in the coming election so they think." After a tirade of unpleasant epithets applied to Republicans in general, the editor bids them pitch in, that they will not get more than one vote to seventy-five for Democracy. He then mentions the " Lone Republican" of Fresno County that he had gone to a more congenial clime that his portrait could be seen in the hotel at Millerton, where Mr. McCray, at great expense, had placed it, that the passer-by might look at the " Lone Republican."

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph line was completed to Visalia June 18.

About this time, Judge Boring resigned the position of County Judge, and engaged in the mining business, and E. E. Calhoun was appointed to fill the vacancy.

This year, Henry Hartley produced 1,000 pounds of onions on eight square rods of ground, some of which weighed one and a half pounds.

In September a newspaper was started at Visalia, The Sun, which was intended to unite the Democratic factions, as well as gather to one fold the disgruntled of all parties.

Efforts were made during this year to organize a fire department in Visalia.

Dr. Mathews raised a single cluster of grapes weighing nine pounds.

In October, at a public meeting in Visalia, E. C. Winchell, candidate for the Assembly on the Democratic ticket, spoke on the issues of the day, and the Delta editor said "Dr. McCaffery appeared on the part of 'old Abe' and did his best to bolster up the cause of Republicanism."

In November culminated the difficulty which had for some time been pending between Wm. Gouverneur Morris and Editor Shannon, which resulted in the death of the latter. We quote the Delta's statement of the trouble at the time: "On Thursday evening Shannon entered the law office of W. P. Gill, where Morris was sitting. Shannon held in his hand a cocked pistol, and on entering raised it, at the same time saying, 'Morris, are you armed '? Morris at once sprang to his feet and grappled with his opponent. Shannon being much the taller, Morris was unable to disarm him, and Shannon beat him severely over the head with the pistol, inflicting nine severe scalp wounds. At the first or second blow Shannon's pistol was discharged accidentally. After receiving the blows, Morris fell to the floor covered with blood, whereupon Shannon gazed upon him several seconds, then turned and left the room. Morris, however, sprang to his feet and drawing his revolver rushed out of the south door of the building so as to intercept Shannon before reaching his office. The parties here exchanged shots ineffectually. Morris then left his position and proceeding to the north side of the building climbed upon the fence Shannon meantime retaining his position. Morris took deliberate aim and fired the ball, striking Shannon in the abdomen. At this instant Shannon had raised his pistol, but lowered it without firing, and putting his hand on the wound turned and walked to his office, where he died in about an hour and eighteen minutes."

During this year the question of a new county was agitated, to be formed from Tulare and Los Angeles territory. The name to be Tejon, and Fort Tejon to be the county seat. It failed to materialize.

The first settlement in Tulare County was at Woodville, six miles east of Visalia, on the south bank of Kaweah River, where, in December, 1850, fourteen men, under guidance of one Mr. Woods (whence the village gets its name), attempted to found a settlement. But one of the five houses which they began to build was completed when Francisco, the chief of a large tribe of Kaweah Indians, warned the party that they must leave within ten days, which they agreed to do. See a full history of this elsewhere.

The wheat threshed in the county in 1860 amounted to 3,850,000 pounds.

In November W. G. Morris was arraigned for the killing of John Shannon. Morris was acquitted on the ground of justifiable homicide.

Shannon's administrator, G. W. Rogers, managed the Delta for a time, which was edited by L. O. Sterns. November 1 the total debt of the county was $33,262.46.

The Delta was purchased in December by L. A. Holmes, of the Mariposa Gazette.

The school census of the county this year shows 465 children of school age, which entitled the county to $548 of State school funds.

The families who were announced as having recently arrived in the county with such unusual numbers of daughters failed to fill the demand for wives.

The Delta in February says: "The business of marrying will come to an end about here soon, resources are failing, marriageable virgins all taken, only a few now in short clothes, and several juveniles near 50 years old are around prospecting for these."

In March it was stated that there were strong indications that the rising waters would inundate Visalia.

In April is the following: "Briggs, who has been appointed to the Visalia land office, is a black Republican, but is said to be otherwise a nice man. But the Delta was a strong Unionist. In the 30th of May issue is the following: " With the blessings of Almighty God we expect to call things by their right names and shall continue to denounce treason whether it comes from the North or the South, and shall speak of the John Browns and Jeff. Davises as they deserve, regardless of consequences. While our hair holds on and the stars of heaven shine in their accustomed places, we will recognize no flag but the stars and stripes of our country."

John G. Parker was appointed postmaster at Visalia this year.

Grasshoppers in legions invaded portions of the valley and destroyed all vegetation where they went.

A disposition is manifested among a portion of the Democratic party to oppose the war measures. They are known as Anti-Coercionists. The editor of the Delta in his paper of August 29th said that the Los Angeles News stated they had heard a story about an armed body of men camped in the neighborhood of Visalia, and that fifty of them had torn down an American flag. The Delta man said: "Our American flag still waves, Mr. News. One of them flutters from the Delta office it hasn't come down—not muchly the halyards won't let it. There was a party encamped here, bound for Texas, whether to join Jeff'. Davis or not we don't know. They behaved themselves like gentlemen and are "done gone away.'"

At the general election this year Thomas Baker was elected to the State Senate Pemberton to the Assembly S. W. Beckham, District Attorney W. C. Owens, Sheriff E. E. Calhoun, Clerk L. L. Bequette, Recorder J. C. Reid, Treasurer R. B. Sagely, Assessor M. G. Davenport, Public Administrator B. W. Taylor, Superintendent of Schools J. D. P. Thompson, Coroner J. E. Scott, Surveyor.

This year splendid deer-skins, dressed, sold for $19 per dozen.

In October the newspaper Sun was discontinued, the proprietor joining with L. A. Holmes of the Delta.

During this year the Board of Supervisors appointed to fill vacancies—T. O. Ellis, Superintendent of Schools S. Sweet, Coroner and John Cutler, Public Administrator.

One Dan Showalter attempted with a company to reinforce the Confederates. He was arrested and treasonable papers found on him. Another party is mentioned passing through Visalia headed south they were from Mariposa County. They were not so well equipped as were the Showalter party, owing to the fact that Southern sympathizers were getting a little frightened at, as well as disgusted with, Uncle Samuel's unceremonious method in confiscating the effects of the Showalter company. It is said that the prominent " seceshers" in Tulare County positively refused to contribute one dollar to the Mariposa column. Some small contributions are said to have been made consisting principally in poor whisky.

January 23 the editor says: "Owing to the flood, and being short of paper, we issue but a half sheet this week. During the flood a thief broke into the Delta office, supposedly to take a rifle usually kept there. A vigilant Newfoundland dog on watch objected to intruders at that hour and bit the would-be thief, who left near a pint of his blood on the floor. The dog was alone, but knew his business, and well did he perform his duty."

In January the water was so deep on the streets of Visalia that travel from house to house was by row-boats.

One Captain Powell headed a company from this region bound for Dixie about the first of the year.

The floods washed away large tracts of heavily timbered land along the streams in the county. Some of the trees, from their size, were estimated to be 200 years old.

April, Warren Wasen, writing of the Indian war on Owen's river, said: " Being unable on my arrival at Aurora to obtain provisions or transportation for the company organized there to receive the arms sent in my charge by Governor Nye, I was compelled to leave them and proceed, accompanied by Lieutenant Noble and his company of fifty mounted men. They arrived at the upper crossing of Owen's river on the evening of April 6, and the following morning met Colonel G. Evans with Lieutenants French and Oliver, Captain Winne of his command, having been left with seven men to garrison the stone fort forty miles below. These were under Colonel Mayfield from Visalia. The Indians, during the previous winter had been in the habit of killing cattle, which led to the killing of some Indians, and this caused the Indians to begin a retaliatory warfare. The whites finally collected their cattle about thirty miles above the lake, where they fortified themselves and dispatched messengers to Visalia and Carson for relief. They were reinforced by eighteen men from Aurora on March 28, when sixty men under Colonel Mayfield followed the Indian trail fifty miles up the valley to a creek opposite the upper crossing, where they encamped.

About noon on the 6th of April the Indians appeared in considerable force toward the mountains on the southwest. A detachment was left in charge of the camp, and the main force advanced in two columns against the Indians. The firing began as soon as they approached within range, at which time C. J. Pleasanton of Aurora was killed, and the columns fell back in confusion, and would no doubt have continued their flight had not some of their officers compelled them to make a stand in a ditch which bad been dug and used by the Indians for irrigating purposes. Here they kept up a desultory tiring with the Indians at long range until night, few shots taking effect. Sheriff Scott of Mono County received a ball in the head, killing him instantly. Mr. Morris, formerly of Visalia, was shot in the bowels and died the following day. The whites retreated that night, leaving behind some eighteen horses, considerable ammunition and provisions.

The following day they met Colonel Evans and his command, who persuaded some forty-five men to return with him in pursuit of the Indians the remainder continued the retreat to the fort. Colonel Evans now took command of the entire expedition, and that night camped on the battle ground of the previous day, and the next morning buried the bodies of Scott and Pleasants. Scouts sent out reported the Indians miles above at the head of the valley. The command was soon on the move and about noon arrived at the mouth of the canon where the Indians were reported to be. Lieutenant Noble was ordered to advance with his command up the mountain to the right of the canon, while Colonel Evans with his force advanced on the left, and Colonel Mayfield to push forward between the two. They proceeded up the mountain three miles, facing a terrific snow storm, which prevented them seeing objects three yards in advance. Not finding the Indians, they returned to the valley and encamped on the creek. Soon after dark they discovered Indian fires in a canon one mile north of the one previously searched.

Next morning Sergeant Gillispie, of Lieutenant Noble's command, with nine men, was sent to reconnoiter the canon where the fires were seen and after proceeding up the rocky canon 300yards they were fired upon. Sergeant Gillispie was instantly killed, and Corporal Harris wounded. They retreated, leaving Gillispie' body.

Lieutenant Noble was now instructed to take position on the mountain to the left of the canon. Colonel Evans was to have occupied the right. Colonel Mayfield and four men accompanied Lieutenant Noble, the rest of Mayfield's command remaining below7. Noble's command succeeded in gaining their position under a brisk fire on both sides from concealed Indians. Here Colonel Mayfield was killed. Lieutenant Noble, seeing it impossible to maintain his position, or proceed up the mountain without great loss, owing to its precipitous nature, or to return the fire from the concealed foe with effect, retreated in good order down to Colonel Evans' command, carrying with them Sergeant Gillispie's body. Colonel Evans then retreated with the entire command down the valley, followed by the Indians. The command camped that night twelve miles below at the place where Scott had been buried. Colonel Evans continued the retreat back to Los Angeles, and the Indians were for a time master of the situation, and were troublesome at times for several years many battles of more or less magnitude were fought, lives were sacrificed, and considerable money expended by the citizens and Government, when finally the Indians were gathered up and placed on a reservation, and Owen's river people began to sow and reap in peace.

During this year an Indian on Kaweah creek died. Two medicine men of the tribe had pledged that he should recover. One of these made his escape the other was attacked by the relatives of the deceased, armed with guns, pistols and bows and sent to the happy hunting-ground in short order.

This year a Mr. Jefferds grew a field of wheat estimated to yield sixty bushels to the acre.

In September Messrs. Hall and Garrison commenced the publication of a weekly paper called the Equal Rights Expositor, with the material which had been used for printing the Tulare Post. The latter had but a brief existence.

L. A. Holmes of the Delta died in Stockton, September 8,1862. Although he had long been an active newspaper man, ably and fearlessly advocating the cause of his country, he had no enemies.

This year a Mr. Bliss reports that in the spring he had eight stands of bees. They increased by swarming during the season to forty stands. He took from the hives that year 1,000 pounds of honey.

A military camp was established near Visalia, which was christened Camp Babbitt, in honor of Lieutenant-Colonel E. B. Babbitt, deputy quartermaster general of the department of the Pacific Troops were stationed here during the war,—• two companies of Second United States Cavalry. Colonel George S. Evans was the first to command the post.

There were 822 school children in the county this year, entitling the county to $739 of the State school fund.

Colonel Evans was transferred to Salt Lake and Major O'Neal placed in charge of Camp Babbitt.

There was raised in the county this year 150,000 bushels of wheat and 90,000 of barley.

One evening in March, the town of Visalia was aroused by the sound of crashing and smashing, which was soon ascertained to proceed from the building occupied by the printing office of the Equal Rights Expositor. A crowd at once rushed toward the spot, but did not get far, for on each street and alley intersecting the block were found sentinels with cocked pistols who informed them that " no citizens were allowed inside the lines, and the orders were enforced to the letter. In a short time the establishment was a total wreck the type was thrown into the streets, and the cases, press, etc., smashed to pieces. Their work done, the rioters departed. On entering, Mr. Garrison, the junior partner, was found at work and a guard was placed over him, with the assurance that no harm was intended him. The immediate cause of the outbreak is said to have been the publication of an article on the " California Cossacks," which teemed with abusebut the starting of it is attributed to the almost unintermitted publication for several months of such as the following: " We have said Abraham Lincoln has perjured himself and we have proved it. We now tell those who support this detestable war, to the extent of their support they participate with Lincoln in the crime of perjury." "Much has been said and written about the spirit of Americans, but that portion of them who sustain the administration are base cowards. They have hearts only of does and rabbits, not of men they are an incumbrance and disgrace to any free country, and are constitutionally fitted only for serfs to some despot. They would cringe and lick the rod as often as it smote them." These insults had been keenly felt, and great patience and forbearance exercised but forbearance ceased to be a virtue and the office was destroyed. The good citizens irrespective of party rejoiced at the destruction of this vile press. The senior editor had used more vile epithets in regard to good citizens of the county, and persisted in publishing more seditious, treasonable matter than any other two papers of secession proclivities in the State and it is but natural in times of war excitement that some men will excite deeds of violence.

On the Tule river Indian reservation there was grown, harvested and threshed, all by Indian labor, 600,000 pounds of wheat, 50,000 of barley, 10,000 of rye, 175 of seeds, and 300 pounds of peas.

During this year the soldiers from Camp Independence had a battle with the Indians on the east side of Owen's lake, killed several and took five prisoners. While crossing the river en route to camp the prisoners attempted to escape by plunging into the water two were shot, and the other retaken. In October, William H. Grubbs was returning from Steinmore's about eleven o'clock at night, when he was attacked by a number of drunken Indians, who attempted to stop him, and take some liquor which he had.. Failing to escape by the speed of his horse, he used his knife freely, killing one Indian, mortally wounding another, was organized in and cutting a third badly.

December 9, the First Presbyterian Church Visalia by Rev. Edwards.

During this month high water prevailed in the streams throughout the county.

In August, Sergeant Charles C. Stroble, of Company I, Second Cavalry, was killed by a notorious Secessionist, James L. Wells. It appears that Wells and one Donahue had been quarreling, after which Wells remarked to George Kraft, " You'll see some fun in a few minutes," and passing into a store took a position close to a pillar supporting the front of the building. Donahue and Stroble came out of an adjoining building together, when Wells and Donahue renewed their angry conversation, Stroble taking no part in the quarrel. At this time Wells put his hand to his side, when Donahue drew his pistol and covered him. Wells raised both hands and said he had no arms,— only a pocket-knife. Donahue turned to walk away, when Wells sprang behind the pillar, drew his pistol and fired at Donahue, and then at Stroble. The shot fired at Stroble entered the right breast and passed out at the left side. In less than ten minutes he was dead. Meanwhile, Wells, from his sheltered position, was exchanging shots with Donahue, who stood in the open street. About this time other parties began firing at Donahue, and a soldier came to his assistance. The parties emptied their pistols at Wells without effect, owing to his protected position. Wells finally withdrew by way of the rear of the building, ran to a livery stable, where he procured a horse and was gone before a half dozen men in town knew that he had been engaged in the shooting. He succeeded in eluding his pursuers, and made his way to Mexico, where he was joined later by his family, and where it is said that he died a few years since.

The election in the county this year gave strong Union encouragement, and secession began to wane.

Total amount of taxable property in the county this year, $1,200,418 total tax levied, $29,919. There were 836 school children in the county, for which was received from the State school fund $484.88.

Visalia elected her first town officers in May, viz.: Trustees—-D.R.Douglas, Daniel Woods, Jr., J. H. Thomas, J. E. Denny and Nathan Baker John Gill, Assessor J. W. Kennedy, Marshal and Horace Thomas, Treasurer. Tipton Lindsey was elected clerk for one year, and the salary for that official was fixed at $3 per day when employed, the assessor $5, the marshal same fees as are allowed constables, and for collections same percentage as is paid the sheriff. Treasurer to receive the same pay as the county treasurer for like service. At the fall election the Democratic ticket was successful, with one exception, that of Tipton Lindsey, who was elected Supervisor.

The first legal execution for crime in Tulare County was that of Jose Jesus Stanner, less than eighteen years of age. The crime was the killing of two men by the name of Williams, sheep grazers, and an Indian boy, knocking out their brains with an ax while they were asleep! He was executed early in December.

On the night of December 31, on the Kaweah meadows, the Indians killed Mrs. McGuire and her son about six years of age Mr. McGuire was immediately informed of the tragedy by a messenger, who found him at Fort Independence. A party of twenty men, under Captain Gran by, started at once for the scene, and succeeded in killing several Indians.

February, the newspapers have an article on the immense oil springs discovered along the eastern base of the Coast Range, from the Pacheco to Buena Vista lake. A Mr. Hamilton and party had made the discovery several months previous. This is the oil region since famous, and now covered by Kern County.

In March the Summer Mining Company at Kernville were doing a good business, running two mills, and averaging $1,000 per week.

Joseph H. Thomas, J. W. Freeman and McKinney & Co. erected quartz mills in the Clear Creek mining region.

Mining this year was profitable. Messrs. Livermore, Jewett & Co., put in 200 acres of cotton on Kern river.

Colonel Thomas Baker built a dam 160 feet long across the slough, severing the connection between Buena Vista and Tulare lakes, by which the waters were diverted for irrigating purposes.

The assassination of President Lincoln was denounced in strong terms by men of all parties in Visalia. Immediately on receipt of the news of the President's assassination a mass meeting assembled in the courthouse, which was addressed in a feeling and appropriate manner by S. C. Brown, Hon. Nathan Baker, A. J. At well, George Palmer, Father Dade and Dr. James Webb. A number of appropriate resolutions were passed, among which was: "That the history of the world does not furnish a parallel to this damnable deed of darkness, whereby the freely chosen head of a great, intelligent and Christianized people has fallen a sacrifice to the frenzied hatred of the adherents of a rebellion whose wickedness has fully culminated in the deed of infamy."

July 18, Colonel L. W. Ransom, of the Delta, started on a tour through the Eastern States.

The question of two new counties to be formed from Tulare was agitated this year.

There were in the county live stock of all kinds 95,685 head, valued at $1,212,381.

The population of the county in 1860 was 4,500 in 1865,6,500.

Early in March all the streams in the county got on a tear, and " there was much water there, doing considerable damage in Visalia as well as the country adjunct to the several streams.

Some time in this month a successful operation in tracheotomy was performed by Drs. Ben and George upon the child of Wm. T. Cole, of King's river, who had swallowed a grain of corn, which was extracted. The corn had sprouted, having been two weeks in the larynx. The child recovered.

In the same month Messrs. Kramel and Slocum killed in the foothills, near the Kaweah, a California lion, which weighed, after being well bled and lying out all night, 140 pounds, and measured from tip to tip nine feet four inches.

Charles W. Bowman became associated with the publication of the Delta in May. Also T. J. Brundage was appointed Superintendent of Schools, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of M. S. Merrill. Rev. Edwards presents the editor of the Delta peaches three inches in diameter, picked from trees in his garden.

At the September election J. C. Brown was chosen Assemblyman W. F. Thomas, Sheriff A. J. Atwell, District Attorney T. J. Shackleford, Clerk J. E. Scott, Treasurer T. J. Hawkins, Assessor J. M. Johnson, Surveyor Joseph Lively, Coroner. The Delta man wailed over defeat as follows : " Ye that have tears prepare to shed them now yes, and you that haven't tears get an onion and make some for we are beaten,—not only beaten, but demoralized, destroyed, demolished, subjugated, squelched, wiped out, gone up the spout, gone to grass, pulverized, cleaned out, kerflummnxed, knocked into 'pi,' upset and totally annihilated. We acknowledge the corn, we own up, throw up the sponge, capitulate, cry peccavi, take him off, we feel bad, don't think we're well, and want to go home. ' But there's no use in crying over spilled milk we can't help ourselves, for the present, and there's no use making any fuss about it. We shan't make a war, as the Democrats would if they had been beaten we don't want to hurt anybody that we know of in particular, and after the experience of the 4th we don't feel quite certain we could do it in fact we don't feel quite certain about anything. Rather think we weren't at the election don't know what Pinto means don't think we are voters are not quite certain whether we live in the United States or Dixie, but have a faint recollection that on the 4th something fell on us. What was it ?"

W. Owen exhibited some pears measuring 15 1.2 by 17 1/2 in circumference, and weighing 2 1/2 pounds.

In March there was shipped from Visalia at one time, by one man, two tons of honey and 1,000 dozen eggs. The month previous he shipped 10,000 dozen eggs.

The Board of Supervisors at a meeting this month granted Hugh Hamilton, W. S. Powell and others, the exclusive right to float saw-logs down the Kaweah river. This act was so ridiculous that it was treated as a huge joke.

During this year A. O. Thomas started a rapid transit stage line between San Francisco and Visalia. Three trips a week were made time between the two points, 36 hours and from Visalia to Havilah in one day. In May a severe hailstorm and waterspout visited the country along White river, which came near drowning the residents. The storm extended nearly to Poso creek, a distance of twenty miles. Many of the hailstones were as large as quail's eggs. In many places the trees were completely shorn of foliage. Visalia was incorporated in 1868. At the election held for city officials there were chosen for Trustees—E. Jacob, William Harlan, J. A. Samstag, J. A. Patterson and W. A. Russell W. F. Thomas, Marshal R. E. Hyde, Treasurer O. H.Glasscock, Assessor.

This brings us down to the modern period of the country's development, which will be more fully reviewed.

Of the county in 1860 was 4,368. In 1870, it was as follows: Farmersville, 807, of which 755 were natives King's River, 166, 148 of whom were natives Packwood, 214, of when 172 were natives Tule River, 1,098, of whom 953 were natives Tule River Reservation, 124, natives, 2 Venice, 490, of whom 475 were natives Visalia District, 1,626, of whom 1,377 were natives Visalia town, 913, of whom 707 were natives White River, 120, of whom 87 were natives. Total, 5,446, of whom 4,684 were natives. The census of 1880 gave a total population of 11,280, and in 1890, 24,574.

The Board of County Supervisors met in special session on Monday, April 10, 1876. for the purpose of receiving and adopting plans for building a new courthouse and jail. A. A. Bennett of San Francisco was awarded the prize, and his plan was adopted. There was $20,000 in county bonds, denomination $500 each, for such building purposes. Notice was published that on May 6, 1876, the old courthouse and jail would be offered for sale to the highest bidder. In accordance with said notice, on the day stated the courthouse was sold by Sheriff Wingfield to A. H. Glasscock for $682.50, and the jail to R. E. Hyde for $225. Among the several bidders to construct the new building were Stephen and Childers, whose bid being the lowest—$59,700—was accepted.

During the erection of the new buildings the county officials occupied a town hall.

The new courthouse corner-stone was laid and formally dedicated October 27, 1876. Various civic organizations participated in the ceremonies, which were conducted by the Most Worthy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Masons of the State of California, John Mills Browne, who was presented by the citizens of Visalia with a handsome and elegantly engraved silver trowel as a token of respect and appreciation of his highly honored position and services. A very interesting address was delivered by E. Jacobs. The following were the articles deposited in the corner stone: Roll of officers and members of Visalia Lodge, No. 128, F. & A. M., and a copy of their by-laws proceedings of Grand Lodge of F. & A. M. of California list of officers and copy of by-laws of Damascus Encampment, No. 44, I. O. O. F. list of officers and members of Four Creeks Lodge, No. 94, I. O. O. F. Holy Bible, presented by I. N. Matlick by-laws and members of Visalia Chapter, No. 44, R. A. M. one trade dollar, one half dollar, one twenty-cent piece constitution of the United States in manuscript by A. Beyer copy of regulations of school laws and of school libraries, by W. A. Wash copy of California revised school laws, by W. J. Ellis announcement of Visalia Normal School, September 4, 1876, by McPhail & Orr copy oi Tulare Weekly Times of October 28, 1876, containing a fine picture of the courthouse as it will appear when completed, and a description of the several rooms copy of Visalia Weekly Delta of October 28, 1876 copy of Visalia Iron Age of October 25, 1876 copy of the great register of Tulare County for the Year 1876 poster and programme of the Centennial celebration on the 4th day of July, 1876, at Tulare City one redwood knot from the largest redwood tree in Tulare County, 43 feet in diameter and 300 feet in height, by George Kraft a piece of silver ore from the Emma mine of Tulare County, by George Kraft he also deposited one ten dollar note of the late Confederate States of America one Prussian silver dollar, by R. Broder and Leon Jacob two vials of wheat grown in 1876, by E. Jacob, and one $20 gold coin by same, date 1873 also one five dollar gold note, First National San Francisco Gold Bank, 1870 one dollar currency note one twenty-five cent United States currency nine foreign coins, and San Francisco Journal of Commerce, October 26, all by E. Jacob one trade dollar and a number of foreign coins by Dr. Davenport copy of the Ulster County (New York) Gazette of 1800, January 9, containing an account of the death of Gen. George Washington, by P. H. Martin.

The courthouse is a handsome brick structure with granite sills and steps, is 60 x 95 feet, with two wings 12 x 31 feet. Basement story, 12 feet main story, 15 feet district court room, 22 x 22 feet county court room, same size and rooms in upper story, all 17x17 feet. The jail and some of the county offices are in the basement. In 1890 there was completed anew, handsome and substantial jail building, second to none in the State.

By the courthouse act, the Board of Supervisors were authorized to issue bonds of the county to an amount not to exceed $75,000 all bonds payable twenty years after issue, with interest at ten per cent, per annum, payable annually on the second Monday in January each year, both principal and interest to be payable in United States gold coin only the bonds to be issued in denominations of $500 each and signed by the Board of Supervisors and the County Clerk and the interest coupons to be attached and signed in like manner. The Supervisors had authority to issue such bonds, in such sums, and at such times as was necessary to meet demands as the courthouse structure progressed toward completion. Bonds could be redeemed at the pleasure of the county after ten years from date of each. Supervisors were also authorized to levy a tax annually for paying interest on bonds.

This is one feature of the county which we do not feel inclined to praise, and yet it serves an important purpose, no doubt. There is nothing beautiful about it, and yet it serves to hold the surplus waters at flood tide of the several streams flowing into it, and to cool somewhat the summer breezes as they sweep over its surface is a home for myriads of fresh water fish and makes an excellent resort for ducks and geese. The lake is now about eighteen miles square, and has a possible area of 324 square miles. It has a depth of perhaps forty feet in the deepest places, but in most places one can wade out for two miles or more from shore. A strip of tules two or three miles wide and ten feet high grows in the shallow water encircling the lake.

The main line of the Southern Pacific passes through the county from north to south. From Goshen on the main line, a branch road passes through the heart of the western portion of the county. On this line, sixteen miles from Goshen, another road branches out in a northwesterly direction, and connect with the Central Pacific railroad at Tracy, 140 miles away. A road running east from Goshen seven miles connects Visalia with the main line another road of eleven miles connects Visalia with the main line at Tulare City. The two last named are controlled by Visalia capitalists. On the east side of the valley is a new line of road constructed by the Southern Pacific Company.

This road leaves the main line at Fresno, Fresno County, passes entirely through Tulare County from north to south, hugging closely the foothills, and connects with the main line again at Poso, Kern County. There are 177 miles of railroad in the county.

The first school taught in the county was in the winter of 1853-54, and was a select school taught by Rev. Kennedy, a Presbyterian minister, in Visalia, in a private house.

The first public school taught in the county was by a Mr. Carpenter, in the winter of 1854-ཱི.

An academy was founded by Rev. W. B. Taylor in Visalia in 1860, and flourished under his able management for four years, the number of students ranging from 100 to 175.

A change of management caused it to decline as rapidly as it had grown, and it soon ceased to be.

H. McLean and J. D. Travis were among the pioneer teachers during the first school decade, when there were but three school districts. The entire county was one district, which had been divided into three during the first ten years of public schools. The second decade increased the school districts from three to twenty-seven. The third decade increased the number to eighty three districts, with ninety-nine schools. In 1880 the total number of census children in the county between the ages of five and seventeen years was 3,447 number of schools, 75 number of teachers employed, 88 money appropriated for the year, $44,481.93. In 1883 there were 3,646 children in the county between the ages of five and seventeen years, and 1,671 under five years number of school age attending school, 2,758 number of school age not attending, 742 number of school districts, 83 number of months taught teach year, 6 1/2 average daily attendance, 1,784 average monthly salary paid teachers, $69 amount of State funds received, $31,123 amount of county funds received, $14,657 amount of special funds received, $2,693 total expenses incurred, $53,814 and valuation of school property, $33,000.

In 1890 there were: school children, 6,270 number of schools, 120 number of teachers, 152 total money paid for school purposes, $114,742.40. The school census for 1891 gives the total number of children in the county of school age, 6,768 of whom there are boys, 3,391 and girls, 3,377. Of these there are three Indian boys and three girls in the Excelsior district, and two Chinese girls in Tulare city, and one Chinese boy in Visalia. Totals in 1890: Boys, 3,281 girls, 2,987 total boys and girls, 6,270. Increase for 1891: boys, 110 girls, 388 total of boys and girls, 498. No figures could be obtained as to the average salary paid teachers in 1890.

The following figures regarding the census of the Visalia school district will be found interesting: Number of white boys between five and seventeen years of age, 355 girls, 359 16 Negroes and 1 Mongolian total, 731. Number of white children under five years of age, 200 Indians, 3 total, 203. Number of white children between five and seventeen years of age who have attended public school at any time during the school year, 510 Negroes, 9 total, 519. Number of white children between five and seventeen years who have attended private schools, 2. Number of white children who have not attended school during school year, 199 Negroes, 10 Mongolians 1 total, 210.

Number of children in the county under five years of age, 2,730 number who have attended school during school year, 5,289 number who have not attended school, 1,479 number of foreign born children, 40 Mongolians, natives, 3 Indians, 10.

Advance school district has lapsed, and Rocky Hill district has been consolidated with the Yokohl school district.

There are few counties in the State that have made as great advancement in public education in the past year as Tulare County. Visalia has erected a new school building that would be a credit to any city in the State, at a cost of nearly $30,000. Lindsay school district has a new brick building just completed at a cost of $10,000, and Orosi district one that cost $6,000. There are eleven school buildings in the county that have cost a sum exceeding $6,000, several of these having cost $30,000. The pioneer schoolhouse ^in every district in the county is giving way to the modern structure, and the people are taking a special pride in their schools, as is shown not only by their schoolhouses but by the well selected libraries found in the schoolrooms.

Number of grammar schools in the county, 60. Number of primary schools, 94.

Number of new districts organized, 4.

Number of trustees appointed by county superintendent, 65.

Number of schoolhouses built of brick, 5.

Number of schoolhouses erected during the year, 6. Total number of schoolhouses in county, 118.

Number of male teachers, 58 female teachers, 96. Total number of teachers, 154.

Average monthly wages paid to male teachers, $85.60. Paid to female teachers, $72.39.

Number of teachers who are graduates of California State Normal school, 28.

Number of graduates of other State normal schools, 14.

Number of teachers who hold life diplomas, 48.

Number of teachers who hold State Educational diplomas, 35.

Number of teachers who hold high-school certificates, 9. Number who hold county certificates, first grade, 117. Second grade, 25.

Number of certificates granted to male teachers, 19. To female teachers, 43.

Number of certificates renewed, 18. Number of applicants rejected, 60.

Number of schools maintained less than six months, 1. Number maintaining schools six months or over and less than eight months, 54.

Number of districts maintaining schools eight months and over, 65.

Number of teachers who attend county institutes, 153.

Number of teachers who subscribe for educational journals, 135.

Salary of county superintendent, $1,800.

Number of schools visited, 128. Number not visited, 34.

Rate of school tax levied in 1890, 25 cents.

County assessment roll of taxable property for 1890, $21,740,817.

Number of private schools in county, 2, employing two teachers. Number of children attending private schools, 92.

Amount expended in construction of new schoolhouses during the year and purchasing sites, etc., $54,875.23.

Like most of the counties in the State, Tulare's records are imperfect in many respects as to the earlier events, elections, etc. We have gathered from all sources the officials to date as nearly as possible. The two first elections are given under the head of County Organization, and other election data will be found under head of Miscellaneous Items of Early Times.

The records show that in September, 1854? the Board of Supervisors were: Warren Mathews, A. H. Murray and Loomis St. John. Mathews was Chairman of the Board. John Cutler was County Judge. Records do not show result of elections from 1854 to 1857 inclusive.

Elected in September, 1858: Robert C. Redd, County Judge.

At the September election in 1859 William Boring was elected County Judge S. C. Brown, District Attorney John C. Reid, Sheriff Ewen Johnson, Treasurer H. C. Townsend, Public Administrator J. D. P. Thompson, Coroner, and O. K. Smith, Superintendent of Schools.

At the meeting of the Board of Supervisors February 4, 1861, there were present: Robert K. Nichols and H. W. Niles.

Elected in September, 1861: James C. Pemberton, Assemblyman Samuel W. Becker, District Attorney William C. Owen, Sheriff E. E. Calhoun, County Clerk Louis Bequette, County Recorder John C. Reid, County Treasurer R. B. Sagely, County Assessor M. G. Davenport, Public Administrator B. W. Taylor, Superintendent of Schools J. D. P Thompson, Coroner J. E. Scott, County Surveyor Pleasant Byrd, Supervisor of the Third District, and R. K. Nichols, Supervisor of the Second District.

Election in September, 1862: J. W. Freeman, Assemblyman T. O. Ellis, Superintendent of Schools H. A. Bostwick, Public Administrator W. A. Russell, Coroner A. M. Donnelson, Supervisor District No. 1.

At the general election in September, 1863: J. C. Brown, State Assemblyman S. A. Sheppard, District Attorney John M. Meadows, Sheriff F. J. Shackelford, Recorder J. T. Holmes, Clerk E. H. Dumble, Assessor T. T. Hathaway, Treasurer J. E. Scott, Surveyor W. A. Russell, Coroner, and M. S. Merrill, Superintendent of Schools.

J. W. Freeman was State Senator from the district of which Tulare County was a part. At this time politics was warm in the county, and it is said that H. N. Carroll, who ran against Baker for County Judge, and Meadows, who was pitted against Gill for Sheriff, were both really elected. Both were warm sympathizers with the South and had been free in expressing themselves, incurring the ill-will of the soldiery and more loyal citizens, and Meadows declined to qualify as sheriff, fearing violence, and John Gill, his opponent, was confirmed sheriff and filled the position. The courts decided in favor of Nathan Baker against Carroll, and Baker was made County Judge. A. J. Atwell was appointed, by the Board of Supervisors, County Superintendent of Schools, in December, 1863.

General election, 1865: J. W. Freeman, State Senator J. C. Brown, State Assemblyman T. Reed, County Sheriff S. A. Sheppard, District Attorney T. J. Shackelford, Recorder John G. Knox, Clerk J. E, Scott, Treasurer M. S. Merrill, Superintendent Schools A. H. Glasscock, Assessor Hamilton, Coroner Joshua Lewis, Surveyor, and Jordan, Supervisor of District No. 1.

Elected in September, 1867: J. C. Brown, Assemblyman W. F. Thomas, Sheriff A. J. Atwell, District Attorney T. J. Shackelford, County Clerk J. E. Scott, County Treasurer T. H. Hawkins, County Assessor W.Williams, Superintendent of Schools J. M. Johnson, Surveyor Joseph Lively, Coroner, and W. F. Markham, Supervisor of District No. 2.

Elected in September, 1869: S. A. Sheppard, County Judge R. C. Redd, District Attorney W. F. Thomas, County Clerk, and A. H. Glasscock, County Sheriff.

Elected in September, 1871: A. C. Biadford, District Judge S. A. Sheppard, County Judge A. J. Atwell, District Attorney A. H. Glasscock, Sheriff and Tax Collector W. F. Thomas, County Clerk Pleasant Byrd, Treasurer F. G. Jefferds, Assessor George Smith, Surveyor S. G. Creighton, Superintendent of Schools D. L. Pickett, Coroner and Public Administrator and Board of Supervisors: James Barton, W. C. Owens, David Strong and C. R. Wingfield.

Elected in September, 1873: W. Canfleld, Assemblyman C. R. Wingfield, Sheriff J. E. Denny, County Clerk John W. Crowley, County Treasurer R. P. Merrill, County Superintendent of Schools George W. Smith, County Surveyor George S. Palmer, District Attorney F. G. Jefferds, Assessor R. P. Martin, Coroner, and W. C. Owen, Supervisor of District No. 3.

Elected in September, 1874: Alexander Dearing, District Judge John Clark, County Judge C. R. Wingfield, Sheriff J. E. Denny, County Clerk W. W. Cross, District Attorney J. W. Crowley, Treasurer F. G. Jefferd, Assessor G. W. Smith, Surveyor R. P. Merrill, Superintendent of Schools and Board of Supervisors: James Barton, W. C. Owens, and F. H. Baker.

Elected in September, 1875: C. R. Wingfield, Sheriff J. E. Denny, Recorder J. W. Crowley, Treasurer J. S. McGahey, Clerk W. W. Cross, District Attorney F. G. Jefferd, Assessor T. J. Vivian, Surveyor R. P. Merrill, Superintendent of Schools J. M. Montgomery, Road Commissioner W. A. Russell, Coroner and Samuel Hunting, Supervisor of District No. 2.

General election in the fall of 1877: J. C. Campbell, Sheriff John G. Knox, Clerk E. J. Edwards, District Attorney Philip Wagy, Treasurer C. S. O'Bannon, Recorder W. P. Kirkland, Auditor Seth Smith, Surveyor L. D. Murphy, Coroner and J. H. Grimsley, Supervisor of District No. 1.

T. Osborn was elected Supervisor District No. 2, in 1878.

General election, 1879: W. W. Cross, Superior Judge H. A. Keener, County Treasurer John G. Knot, County Clerk J. F. Gordan, County Auditor M. J. Wells, County Sheriff E. J. Edwards, District Attorney C. S. O'Bannon, Recorder F. G. Jefferd, Assessor Seth Smith, Surveyor W. J. Ellis, Superintendent of Schools L. M. Lovelace, Coroner and J. H. Shore, Supervisor of District No. 2.

General election, 1882: P. Reddy, State Senator W. L. Martin,* State Assemblyman W. C. Cough ran, County Treasurer L. Gilroy, County Clerk John F. Jordan, County Auditor William F. Martin, County Sheriff O. Sanders, District Attorney J. E. Denny, Recorder Seth Smith, Assessor Thomas Creighton, Surveyor C. H. Murphy, Superintendent of Schools L. M. Lovelace, Coroner and Board of Supervisors: S. M. Gilliam, W. H. Hammond, J. W. C. Pogue, C. Talbot and S. E. Biddle.

General election, 1884: E. De Witt, Assemblyman W. W. Cross, Superior Judge W. B. Wallace, District Attorney L. Gilroy, County Clerk A. Balaam, Sheriff and Tax Collector W. F. Thomas, Recorder W. W. Coughran, Treasurer Ben. Parker, Auditor Thomas Creighton, Surveyor T. W. Pendergrass, Coroner and Board of Supervisors: T. E. Henderson, M. Premo, J. W. C. Pogue, D. V. Robinson and G. E. Shore.

General election, 1886: Tipton Lindsey, State Senator A. B. Butler, Assemblyman C. G. Lamberson, District Attorney George D. Parker, Sheriff L. Gilroy, Clerk W. F. Thomas, Recorder Seth Smith, Assessor C. R. Wingfield, Treasurer C. H. Murphy, Superintendent of Schools Dan G. Overall, Auditor T. W. Pendergrass, Coroner and J. S. Urton, Surveyor.

General election, 1888: John Roth, State Senator G. Stockton Berry, Assemblyman W. W. Cross, Superior Judge John G. Knox, County Clerk Duke S. Lipscomb, Treasurer J. M. Johnston, Recorder Dan G. Overall, Sheriff W. R. Jacobs, District Attorney Seth Smith, Assessor C. H. Murphy, Superintendent of Schools C. T. Buckman, Auditor T.W. Pendergrass, Coroner A. T. Fowler, Surveyor and Board of Supervisors: D. V. Robinson, Thomas E. Henderson, James Barton, John H. Woody, and J. B. Newport.

General election, 1890: G. Stockton Berry, State Senator W. S. Cunningham, Assemblyman W. W. Cross, Superior Judge E. W. Kay, Sheriff John G. Knox, Clerk D. F. Coffee, Assessor Duke S. Lipscomb, Treasurer M. E. Power, District Attorney C. F. Buckman, Auditor C. E. Evans, Recorder T. W. Pendergrass, Coroner Samuel A. Crookshank, Superintendent of Schools A. T. Fowler, Surveyor S. L. N. Ellis, Supervisor District No. 4, and J. H. Fox, Supervisor District No. 5.

A. Wheaton Gray was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of the county in 1891, under an act of the Legislature allowing an additional judge for the county.

The southern portion of the county has been sorely afflicted in the past by train robbers. These bands have not been citizens of the county, but have made the rather isolated region from Goshen to Alila, seeming to give the highwaymen better opportunity to secure their plunder and escape to the mountains before any organized pursuit could be made.

The first train " held up " in the county was at Pixley, on the evening of February 22, 1889. The next successful effort was at or near Goshen, on the morning of January 21, 1890. In the first case two men were killed, and at Goshen a tramp was shot in the face and lost an eye. The last attempt to rob a train occurred on Friday evening, February 6, 1891, near Alila about 8 o'clock, in which George Radliff, a fireman, was shot he died the following morning. Suspicion strongly pointed to the Dalton brothers, some of whom reside in San Luis Obispo County. Other brothers from Oklahoma were known to be at the time visiting these brothers. Sheriff E. W. Kay arrested William and Grattan Dalton, and circumstantial evidence was strong enough to justify the grand jury in finding a bill against them.

The sheriff then went to Oklahoma in search for the other two brothers (supposed accomplices), Robert and Emmett Dalton.

The officers did not succeed in capturing the outlaws. The two arrested were brought to trial, and Grattan Dalton was found guilty and sentenced to a term of years in the penitentiary. No proof being produced that William was a direct accomplice, he escaped the penalty of the law. This it is believed will put a final end to these robberies.

Conrad Alles, a young man seventeen years of age, is the hero of the day in the vicinity of Three Rivers. One morning in 1890 he took his rifle and thought that he would kill a deer for breakfast. He had gone about a mile from home when he noticed that his dog was acting queer and smelling along a track of some kind. Knowing from the dog's actions that it was not a deer, he hissed him onward, and in glancing around spied a large animal of some kind across the river from him. The dogs discovered it about the same time and away they went. They soon treed the animal and when Conrad came up to about fifty yards he saw the creature standing on the limb of a large oak. It proved to be a good-sized California lion. Undaunted by this discovery he took rest off of the side of a tree and shot. The beast tumbled out into a hollow place,where, to get sight of it, Conrad had to surmount a rock near where the lion fell. He did so, and as soon as the wounded lion saw him it made a spring for the lad. He shot unerringly, as the beast fell dead at his feet.

It was a courageous deed for a boy, for in order to get to the lion he had to crawl through thick brush for a long distance and had only a narrow opening to maneuver in after he got there. The lion measured six and one quarter feet from tip to tip.

Daniel Rhoades and wife arrived in 1846. Mr. Rhoades was one of the relief party of seven who first reached the ill-fated Donner party.

Mrs. Mary A. Clark, nee Graves, arrived in 1846. She was one of the seven first rescued members of the Donner party who arrived at Johnson's ranch.

George W. Williams arrived in 1846. He was a member of the " Bear Flag " party, and gave his red shirt to make the border of the original bear flag. C. Burrell arrived in 1846.

A. C. Neill, Green B. Catron, John A. Patterson, A. J. Lafever and wife, John Cutler, W. D. James, John B. Hockett and wife, C. Van Loan, Joshua Lewis, John A. Hart, R. L. Freeman, Samuel Fowler, A. Tyner, J. Richardson, R. C. Redd, Dr. F. A. Combs,Dr. D. Ray, J. T. Clark, T. Lindsey, W. B. Wallace and C. H. Smith arrived in 1849.

John B. Hamilton, L. B. Ruggles, Charles Rose, George W. Smith, J. B. Zumwalt and Daniel Wood arrived in 1850.

Kaweah River

The Kaweah River is a tungsten mine located in Tulare county, California at an elevation of 2,999 feet.

About the MRDS Data:

All mine locations were obtained from the USGS Mineral Resources Data System. The locations and other information in this database have not been verified for accuracy. It should be assumed that all mines are on private property.

Mine Info

Elevation: 2,999 Feet (914 Meters)

Primary Mineral: Tungsten

Lat, Long: 36.61667, -118.91667

Kaweah River MRDS details

Site Name

Primary: Kaweah River
Secondary: Eshom Valley
Secondary: Hill Brothers Marks.



State: California
County: Tulare

Land Status

Land ownership: National Forest





Year: 1944
Time Period: 1944


Record Type: Site
Operation Category: Past Producer
Operation Type: Unknown
Years of Production:
Significant: N
Deposit Size: S


General Physiographic Area: Pacific Mountain System
Physiographic Province: Cascade-Sierra Mountains
Physiographic Section: Sierra Nevada

Mineral Deposit Model





Analytical Data

Analytical Data: 0.3 TO 0.4% WO3




Lake Kaweah, Tulare County, California

Lake Kaweah is situated off Highway 198 between Visalia and Three Rivers in Tulare County, California. The lake is formed by Terminus Dam and is fed by the Kaweah River that originates in the Sierra Nevada at Sequoia National Park .

Except for the Kaweah Marina, Lake Kaweah’s recreation areas are managed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, including: Cobble Knoll, Horse Creek Campground, Horse Creek Day Use Area, Kaweah Heritage Visitor Center, Kaweah Recreation Area, Lemon Hill Recreation Area, and Slick Rock Recreation Area.

The park offers a variety of activities including camping, picnicking and barbecuing, boating, fishing, swimming, kayaking, hiking and birdwatching. The annual Bathtub Race (part of the Three Rivers Hero Appreciation Months) is held every March at Kaweah Recreation Area. For information on the various ranger programs call 559-597-2301.


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Poodle, breed of dog thought to have originated in Germany but widely associated with France, where it is hugely popular. The poodle was developed as a water retriever, and the distinctive clipping of its heavy coat was initiated to increase the animal’s efficiency in the water. The breed has been used for such diverse undertakings as performing in circuses and hunting for truffles (scenting and digging up the edible fungus).

An elegant-looking dog, often ranked as one of the most intelligent of all breeds, the poodle has been bred in three size varieties— standard, miniature, and toy. All three are judged by the same standard of appearance, which calls for a well-proportioned dog with a long, straight muzzle, heavily haired, hanging ears, a docked pompom tail, and a characteristic springy gait and proud manner of carrying itself. The coat consists of a woolly undercoat and a dense wiry topcoat if allowed to grow, the hair forms ropelike cords, and the dog is called a corded poodle. The coat should be solid, not variegated, and may be any of a number of colours, among them gray, white, black, brown, apricot, and cream. The standard poodle stands more than 15 inches (38 cm) the miniature is in excess of 10 inches (25 cm) and no more than 15 inches (38 cm) the toy is 10 inches (25 cm) or under. Weight variations range from as much as 70 pounds (32 kg) to as little as 7 pounds (3 kg). The standard and miniature poodles are classed by the American Kennel Club as Non-Sporting dogs, the toy as a Toy dog.

In the late 20th century, breeders began to cross poodles with other purebred dogs in what was called the “ designer dog” fad the goal was the incorporation into the offspring of the poodle’s intelligence and non-shedding coat. All sizes of poodles were crossed with other breeds, resulting in such mixed breeds as the Labradoodle (Labrador retriever + poodle), schnoodle (schnauzer + poodle), and Pekepoo (Pekingese + poodle). However, many poodle breeders deplored the trend and regretted the dilution of carefully managed bloodlines.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

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