History of Augusta, Maine

History of Augusta, Maine

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Augusta is the capital of Maine and the seat of Kennebec County. It is situated on both sides of the Kennebec River, about 45 miles from the river's mouth.The future site of Augusta had been a Native American village long before the arrival of the first Europeans. The site was selected by members of the Plymouth Colony of Massachusetts in 1625 as a site for a trading post, which was built in 1628. The post operated for 40 or 50 years before being abandoned.About three quarters of a century later, the Kennebec Proprietors, a group of wealthy Boston investors, erected Fort Western below the falls at the head of navigation. When the fort no longer needed a military presence, its commander, Captain James Howard, stayed on as the area's first permanent settler. The fort's main building was his residence as well as a store. Fort Western is the oldest wooden fort still standing in North America.A community known as "The Fort" grew up around the fort and was included within Hallowell when that town was incorporated in 1771. It was at first given the name of Harrington, but the name was changed to Augusta four months later.Augusta became the first seat of Kennebec County when it was formed in 1799. When Maine entered the Union in 1820, Portland was its first capital, but in 1827, the state legislature designated Augusta as the capital. The legislature continued to meet in Portland, however, until 1832, when buildings were ready for the government to move.A complex of state buildings dominates the center of Augusta. The Maine State Capitol, designed by the same Charles Bullfinch who designed the national capitol in Washington, D.C., is situated opposite Capitol Park. Nearby is Blaine House, the official residence of Maine's governor and the former home of the statesman James G. Blaine. The Maine State Museum is a block from the Capitol. The University of Maine at Augusta was founded in 1965 and has additional campuses at Bangor and Lewiston.The houses of a number of men who have contributed to national history are still standing in Augusta. The John Neal House was built on State Street in 1836 by John Neal, an advocate of women's suffrage. The Monastery of the Most Precious Blood, on the same street, was originally the home of Prentiss Mellen, Maine's first chief justice, and later of Senator William Pitt Fessenden. Fessenden was a Republican who voted against his party when he opposed the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. Neal Dow was active in the prohibition movement and helped Maine become the first dry state in 1851. He ran as the Prohibition Party candidate for President in 1880. The Neal Dow Home is on Congress Street.


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Augusta, capital (1831) of Maine, U.S., seat (1799) of Kennebec county, at the head of navigation on the Kennebec River, 57 miles (92 km) northeast of Portland. The city’s establishment and early prosperity, which began with the arrival of traders from the Plymouth colony of Massachusetts in 1628, can be attributed to its location on navigable tidewater 39 miles (63 km) from the Atlantic Ocean. A trading post was established on a site the Canibas Indians called Koussinoc. The first permanent structure, Fort Western, was built there in 1754 for protection against Indian attacks. (In 1922 the wooden fort was restored as a historic monument and museum.) In 1797 the settlement was incorporated as the town of Harrington the present name (for Pamela Augusta, daughter of the Revolutionary War general Henry Dearborn) was adopted later that year.

State government operations, augmented by the University of Maine at Augusta (opened 1965), and light industry are the economic mainstays manufactures include steel, food products, and computer products. The State House (1829–32) was originally designed by Charles Bulfinch and has a 185-foot (56-metre) dome topped by a statue of Minerva created by W. Clark Noble. The Executive Mansion was the former home of James G. Blaine, unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1884. The state’s history and natural environment are depicted in exhibits at the Maine State Museum. With the Belgrade chain of lakes 15 miles (24 km) north and the Kennebec River reaching south to the sea, Augusta is one of the state’s leading vacation centres. Inc. town, 1797 city, 1849. Pop. (2000) 18,560 (2010) 19,136.


The area was first explored by the ill-fated Popham Colony in September 1607. It was first inhabited by English settlers from the Plymouth Colony in 1628 as a trading post on the Kennebec River. The settlement was known by its Native American name — Cushnoc (or Coussinoc or Koussinoc), meaning "head of the tide." Fur trading was at first profitable, but with Natives uprisings and declining revenues, the Plymouth Colony sold the Kennebec Patent in 1661. Cushnoc would remain unoccupied for the next 75 years. [6] This area was inhabited by the Kennebec Natives, a band of the larger Abenaki tribe. During the 17th century, they were on friendly terms with the English settlers in the region. [7] [8]

A hotbed of Abenaki hostility toward British settlements was located further up the Kennebec at Norridgewock. In 1722, the tribe and its allies attacked Fort Richmond (now Richmond) and destroyed Brunswick. In response, Norridgewock was sacked in 1724 during Dummer's War, when English forces gained tentative control of the Kennebec. During the height of the French and Indian War, a blockhouse named Fort Western (now the oldest wooden fort in America), was built at Cushnoc on the eastern bank of the Kennebec River in 1754. It was intended as a supply depot for Fort Halifax upriver, as well as to protect its own region from French attack. [9] Later, during the American Revolutionary War Benedict Arnold and his 1,100 troops would use Fort Western as a staging area before continuing their journey up the Kennebec to the Battle of Quebec.

Cushnoc was incorporated as part of Hallowell in 1771. Known as "the Fort," it was set off and incorporated by the Massachusetts General Court in February 1797 as Harrington. In August, however, the name changed to Augusta after Augusta Dearborn, daughter of Henry Dearborn. In 1799, it became county seat for newly created Kennebec County. [9] Maine became a state in 1820 and Augusta was designated its capital in 1827 over rival cities Portland, Brunswick and Hallowell. The Maine State Legislature continued meeting in Portland, however, until completion in 1832 of the new Maine State House designed by Charles Bulfinch. Augusta was ranked as a city in 1849. [10] After being named the state capital and the introduction of new industry, the city flourished. In 1840 and 1850, the city ranked among the 100 largest urban populations. The next decade, however, the city was quickly bypassed by rapidly growing metropolises in the Midwest. [11]

Excellent soil provided for agriculture, and water power from streams provided for the industry. In 1837, a dam was built across the Kennebec where the falls drop 15 feet at the head of a tide. By 1838, 10 sawmills were contracted. With the arrival of the Kennebec & Portland Railroad in 1851, Augusta became an even more productive mill town. In 1883, the property of A. & W. Sprague Company was purchased by the Edwards Manufacturing Company, which erected extensive brick mills for manufacturing cotton textiles. In the late 19th century, a paper and pulp plant was constructed. [12] Other Augusta firms produced lumber, sash, doors, window shutters, broom handles, stone cutters' tools, shoes, headstones, ice and furniture. The city developed as a publishing and shipping center. Today, government and post-secondary education are important businesses. [13]

Since the mid-eighteenth century, there has been a military presence in Augusta. Fort Western has not had troops garrisoned there since the 1790s, but in 1828, the U.S. Government built an arsenal to protect their interests from Britain. During the Civil War, Augusta was a rendezvous point for soldiers traveling to the front. Many of the soldiers camped on the green in front of the capitol building. In 1862, Camp E.D. Keyes was established in the northwestern portion of the city. During World War I, Camp Keyes was used as a mobilization and training camp for soldiers. The camp eventually became a headquarters for the Maine National Guard. In 1929, the state legislature approved the placement of the Augusta State Airport next to the camp. As the airport grew, the use of the camp as a training facility was no longer possible. Today, it is still used for administrative and logistical purposes by the National Guard.

In the 19th century, Augusta got a regular steamboat service and the railroad. The city installed gas lights in 1859. A telephone service was available in 1880 and a local hospital in 1898. In the early 20th century, Augusta built two movie houses and a film production studio.

For much of Augusta's history, the central business district was on and near Water Street on the west bank of the Kennebec River. The street, laid out in the late 1700s, was the location of the area's commercial and industrial life. Many fires damaged this concentrated area, including one in 1865 that destroyed nearly 100 buildings. In 1890, the first trolley line began operation down Water Street, connecting Augusta with Gardiner and Hallowell to the south. In 1932, buses replaced the trolley line. With the completion of the Maine Turnpike and Interstate 95 in 1955, local commercial developments began to move away from Water Street and closer to the highway. Among the results was a storefront vacancy rate downtown of about 60 percent. [14]

Since the late 2000s, there has been a renewed and ongoing focus by city officials, the Augusta Downtown Alliance, and private developers to revitalize the downtown area.

History of Augusta, Maine - History

130 years of preservation and study of
Kennebec County history (1891-2021)

July Facebook Presentation:
"Pretty Rugged: True Stories From Women of the Sea"

Pretty Rugged dives into the gritty lives of female commercial fishermen as they hunt their prey on the dangerous seas in the commercial fishing industry off the rocky coast of Maine. Expect to see and hear a lot of true stories of dangerous situations they face on the water, the realities of the fishing lifestyle, and learn some family history on generations of local Maine fishermen. Viewers will also learn about both the fishing communities and the current state of lobster fishing in the North Atlantic. During the July 21 presentation, there will be stories about some of the fishermen, the strange history of the Maine lobster, and COVID-19&rsquos effect on the Maine seafood industry. After the presentation there will be an opportunity to ask the author questions.

KHS speaker Ali Farrell is a two-time published author, living in mid-coast Maine. Farrell is president of the United Fishermen Foundation, which supports fishermen and their families through education and advocacy. She has had her own photography business for nine years. Farrell is the mother of a 6-year-old boy and an 8-year-old girl. She is also the author of Pretty Combat: Nonsense, Shenanigans and Tactful Life Domination, and she plans to publish a children&rsquos book in the summer of 2021 called A Lobstergirl Can.

To view this presentation, head to the KHS Facebook page at 6:30 p.m. July 21 and the video will air live. It will also be available to watch later. If you have a question, please submit it in the comments during the live video presentation. Here is the link to the KHS Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/KHS1891. If you have questions about the program, please call Scott Wood, executive director, at 622-7718.

Ali Farrell, July KHS program speaker and author of Pretty Rugged



Genealogy News: Our database now contains more than 50,000 searchable names and over 88,000 listings. You can search these names at: genealogy

Discovering, preserving, and disseminating
Kennebec County history

KHS is located in Maine's Capital City . in historic Kennebec Valley

107 Winthrop Street
Augusta, ME

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Thank you!

Tuesday through Thursday
If unable to visit during our open hours, please call for an appointment

Phone: (207) 622-7718
Mailing Address: PO Box 5582
Augusta, Maine 04332-5582

Winslow Homer Studio

Much of Maine’s reputation is owed to its myth builders, artists who captured an immemorial aspect of the state and its people and honed it until it became legend. Such was Winslow Homer, one of the state’s most famous painters, whose oil portraits froze stormy seas in their cold, dark froth. Many of those masterpieces originated here, part of the Portland Museum of Art, where visitors can take a guided tour.

Vantage point

A post shared by PRB (@prbnsf) on Sep 5, 2015 at 5:13pm PDT

Welcome to the Maine State Archives

Commemorative 1820 House and Senate Journal
To commemorate the State’s bicentennial, the Legislature and Maine State Archives have compiled a special edition reproduction of the journals of the first sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate in 1820. This special publication can be ordered ($25, plus s/h) from the Maine State Archives or by calling 207-287-5790.

The Maine State Archives, a bureau within the Department of Secretary of State, maintains approximately 8 miles of official State records considered to be permanently valuable. Our historical material includes documents such as the original state constitution, reported election results, legislative bills, and policies and research created by state agencies among much more. The Maine State Archives includes two divisions:

Archives Services Division preserves and provides access to many archival records, including those mentioned above. Researchers may request general information or specific records by contacting Archives Services in person, by phone, or e-mail.

Records Management Division helps to establish and administer efficient and effective records management programs within State and local governments and ensure records are being retained for appropriate periods of time through Records Retention Schedules.

Online services

Digital Collections of the Maine State Archives on the DigitalMaine Repository

History of Augusta, Maine - History

The Kennebec Historical Society Genealogical Holdings

There are currently over 50,000 surnames in our database and 88,000 entries for these surnames. When you click on the link below, you will gain access to an Adobe Reader list of names, document titles, and Item ID numbers that are in our database. If you find something you are interested in, you can see the document during open hours. Just bring the Item ID and we will be happy to get the document from our archive. If we're closed, e-mail us or give us a call at (207) 622-7718 and make an appointment.

The following is a partial list of the Society's collections at 107 Winthrop Street that may be of special interest to Genealogists:

1. 1817 Tax assessor's book (INDEXED: 320 names).
2. 1830's Poor House inmate list (INDEXED: 342 names).
3. 1938 WPA Tax photos of buildings in the City of Augusta.
4. Alfred Redington family photos (1800-1900) - First Mayor of Augusta and Sacramento, California.
5. Augusta Building Survey on buildings over 50 years of age (1991-1998).
6. Augusta School Census Records- list of all students in Augusta School District-1893-1903.
7. Augusta Yacht Club Minutes and Visitor's Register (1904 - 1917).
8. Augusta's published magazines from 1870-1940 including a complete set of Hearth & Home.
9. Bibles, Family of Michael Wallace Folger (8 Bibles).
10. Bound Newspapers 1822-1907 including: Kennebec Journal, The Age, The Gospel Banner, The Oxford Democrat and the Maine Standard.
11. Charles Nash's Bibliography of Augusta Citizens to 1897.
12. Church Records: bulletins and Sunday School records (Misc).
13. City Directories Complete from 1871 thru 1900 many from 1900 to 1985.
14. City Treasurer Receipts of Charles Hamlin.
15. Civil War Collection of James Mundy of the 3rd Maine Regiment.
16. Collections and Proceedings of the Maine Historical Society (41 Vol.).
17. Colonial theater records from Elmore Small and photos.
18. Correspondence of Harriet Blaine re: donating the Blaine House.
19. Descendants of William Titcomb of Newbury, MA.
20. Diaries and Schoolbooks of Ethel Beane - teacher about. 1900.
21. Diaries of Everett and Irl Withee (1950-1980).
22. Family papers of Samuel Titcomb's - turn of the Century Lawyer and Landlord.
23. Franco American papers of Thomas Plant.
24. GAR Membership book for the Seth Williams Post 13.
25. Genealogical Register.
26. Gilman Collection including Gilman and Bates families.
27. Hallowell Academy - applications and tuition receipts
28. Hallowell Gazette.
29. Hallowell Poor Dept. Tax Assessment.
30. Historical Society's membership records from 1892 to Present. (Recent records kept confidential)
31. History of Augusta, Maine by James W. North
32. History of Kennebec County, Maine
33. Kennebec Bridge Company Records of the Directors and Stockholders.
34. Knowlton Account Books (1863-1913) Also local undertaker records.
35. Lithgow Library building records and early visitors books.
36. Lithgow Library Membership Lists of the 1870's for the Augusta Literary Assoc.
37. Maine AAA Registers for the years 1860, 1905, 1922 and 1942 through 1970
38. Maine Historical and Genealogical Recorder (Vol. 4-1887, 5-1888, 6-1889, 7-1893 and 8-1895)
39. Maine Roster in WWI, 1917 - 1919
40. Martha Ballard's Diary and Index
41. Metcalf Photographs (family pics)
42. Nash Necrologies - Charles Nash's original notes Notes from 1780 to 1886
43. Newspaper clippings from 1950 to Present.
44. North's original notes for his History of Augusta
45. Persons & Families Collection
46. Poor House Tax Records
47. Prominent Colonial Families
48. Ralph Webber's photo collection of local sites
49. Reports of State Representative Daniel Hickey
50. Scrapbooks of obituaries of prominent citizens
51. South Parish Church Records (Pew records from 1790)
52. State Hospital Nurses Alumni Association Records (1927-1974)
53. Theatrical Scrapbooks of plays in Augusta at the turn of the Century.
54. Town Histories
55. Trouant & Bates Company Undertaking records of the early 20th Century.
56. Vital Records of Local Towns (other than Augusta)
57. Conversions, Funerals, Deaths, Baptisms 1896-1909, Kendall Memorial Chapel, Litchfield, ME (INDEXED: 345 names).

Originally compiled by Mary Hitchings in July, 1999. Updated: January 15, 2013

Things to Do In Augusta ME

VISIT: Maine State Museum

Do not be deceived by appearances. Low slung and not much to look at, the 1971 building that houses both the State Library and Archives and the Maine State Museum is built into the side of a hill and in fact encompasses four floors of exhibits – some really engrossing.

Enter on the 3 rd floor where you can’t miss New England’s oldest locomotive, the 1846 Lion, which ran on (and currently sits on) wooden tracks covered with a thin metal veneer.

The Museum excels at creating scenes and environments. Take “Maine @ Home” on the 4 th floor (the recommended starting point), where visitors are invited to sit in a 1960’s living room to catch up on some TV shows. Step onto a lakefront porch and listen to the sounds of boat motors and loons. And pull a flush-toilet chain and hear its rush of water, among other interactive experiences.

The 2 nd floor “Made in Maine” features a two-story working water mill with ramps that wind around its inner workings. You’ll end up within view of a Cabinet of Curiosities. The “Luck Chair” made of Deer Antlers, is extremely popular. Check out its fur seat, worn down by hunters who rub it for luck before deer hunting season.

Fantastic nature dioramas – that rival the Museum of Natural History in NYC – and multi-media scenes of Maine industry will keep visitors engaged a long time. Plan at least an hour plus to see everything. $2, Tues-Fri 9-5, Sat 10-4.

TOUR: Maine State Capitol Building

It’s just a short path through pretty gardens from the Maine State Museum to the entrance of the State House. Designed by Charles Bullfinch (U.S. Capitol, Massachusetts State House), and finished in 1831 (with new wings added in 1917), Maine’s Capitol building is as unembellished as a Puritan home.

Because the interior is not gilded or festooned with fanciful architectural details, several portraits stand out. A bust of Percival Baxter, who endowed the state with the thousands of acres of forest that became Baxter State Park, is situated in the center of the rotunda.

A portrait of one of the country’s first women to be considered presidential material – Margaret Chase Smith, who served terms in both the Senate and Congress in the 1960’s – hangs near a portrait of Edwin Muskie.

Muskie, who served as Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter, was from the very industrial and polluted Rumford ME, and as Senator, pushed though the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts in the early ‘70’s.

When you finished peering into the modest looking House of Representatives and Senate chambers, step outside on the patio overlooking Augusta – a beautiful view. Tours Mon-Fri 9-12 on the hour. Free.

TOUR: Old Fort Western

On the National Historic Register, Old Fort Western, built in 1754, is the oldest remaining original wooden garrison in North America. It stands as a 100 ft. by 32 ft. remnant of the French and Indian War.

A tour of the wooden fort is a fascinating trip through time. During Colonial America, this area of mid-Maine was unsettled wilderness. European merchants used the Kennebec River to transport items to trade with Native Americans for beaver pelts.

By the 1920’s, the buildings that remained of Fort Western served as a run down flop house for Irish immigrants.

Fort As Wilderness Store

In the mid-1700’s, traders began to settle the land. The Fort became a well-trafficked trading post on the Kennebec River.

This was the last straw for local Native Americans who were incensed at the incursion of the White Man. These hostilities, in part, fed the French and Indian War. Reconstructed Block Houses on either side of the original structure offer visitors a glimpse of how this fort looked in 1750’s during that conflict.

After the war, Captain James Howard, the Venture Capitalist of his day, purchased the fort building. He shingled it, and used it as both his home and general store for the influx of settlers who made their way up the Kennebec River from the Atlantic Ocean shipbuilding town of Bath.

From here, they could transport goods to and from all corners of the world. Most fascinating are documents from that time provided by descendants of the Howard family. Surviving ledgers list items such as fish, pork, and timber, purchased for cash and barter.

The store is fashioned as it would have looked in the late 1700’s. Settlers could buy tools, bolts of fine cloth, buckles, buttons, pins, needles, tobacco, pipes, silk from China, fashion dolls, household goods, paper, ink, ceramic ware, and other exotica one wouldn’t imagine could be found in the middle of the woods.

Fort As Private Home

James’s son, William Howard, inherited the property and turned it into a showpiece. He loved to entertain, so the dining room is set with a china cups, crystal wine glasses and decanter, awaiting the guests arrival. Original wooden chairs (circa 1790), painted to look like bamboo, surround the table.

By the mid 1840’s, the Howard Family had moved out and the building was sold to a real estate company that turned it into an 8-room apartment house for mill workers.

In 1922 the Gannett Family (descendants of the Howard’s) purchased the run down place. They restored it and turned it over to the city as a museum. It has been in operation as a historic site ever since. Open Memorial Day to Labor Day Wed-Mon 10-4 weekdays, 11-4 weekends. Labor Day to Columbus Day 11-4 Weekends only. One hour tours $10.

VISIT/SHOP: Hallowell ME

A cute ‘burb of Augusta, Hallowell’s Main Street invites window and actual shopping. Check out the interestingly named Scrummy After’s Candy Shop. You can spend hours perusing art galleries, antique stores, and pause for the best restaurants and bars in the Augusta area.

History of Augusta, Maine - History

History of Augusta, Maine
A Gazetteer of the
State of Maine

By Geo. J. Varney
Published by B. B. Russell, 57 Cornhill,
Boston 1886

Augusta, the capital of the State and shire town of Kennebee County, is situated upon both sides of the Kennebec River, its north-western part being near the centre of the county of Kennebec. The towns of Sidney and Vassalboro form its northern boundary, Windsor, the eastern, Chelsea and Hallowell the southern and Manchester the western. The territory extends about 10 miles from east to west, and 6 from north to south. Its principal streams are Kennebec River, Bond Brook, and Woromontogus Stream. The pond of the same name in the eastern part of the town, is the largest of the ponds, containing 1 & 3/4 square miles. Others are Three-cornered Pond, Spectacle, Dam, Tolman, Greely, Little Togus, and several smaller. The surface of the town is uneven, but there are no high hills. The underlying rock is granite. The soil is productive, and the town has long been noted for the excellence of its agriculture, and the fine qual ity of its doniestic animals. There is but one village. The Maine Central (formerly Kennebec and Portland) railroad follows the river on the west side from Brunswick to the principal station, then crosses the river diagonally on a graceful iron bridge, and ascends on the east side. The two parts of the town are also connected by a free bridge 400 feet in length. It is of wood, but of large timbers well put together, and kept in the best repair.

The chief manufactures of Augusta are cotton cloths, lumber, sash, doors and blinds, broom-handles excelsior steam engines, railroad cars, stone cutters' tools, shoes, butter-salt, box-tubing, cemetery monuments, furniture, flour and meal, etc. Water is time principal motive power, but three or more factories use steam power. The water-power is furnished by Bond's Brook, which enters the Kennebec at this place, and from a fall of 15 feet in the Kennebec, which forms the head of the tide. The volume of water passing the fall, as measured in 1866 was 175,000 cubic feet per minute for the mean run through the summer.

The Freeman's National Bank, in this city, has a capital stock of $100,000. The capital of the Granite National Bank is $150,000. Augusta Savings Bank at the commencement of the fiscal year of 1880, held in deposits and profits, $2,877,529,41. The Kennebec Savings Bank held at the same time $334,644,73.

Several newspapers and weekly journals are published at Augusta. Of these, time "Maine Farmer," "Gospel Banner," and "Kennebec Journal" are the oldest, and each is excellent in its department. The last has also a daily edition throughout the year. The two first are neutral in politics, the latter republican. The "Home Farm " is a new eight page paper, devoted, as its name indicates, to the improvement and profit of the home and farm. It is an attractive sheet for a small price, and is published weekly by Boardman and Owen. The leading democratic paper is the "New Age." Others are the popular "People's Literary Companion," published weekly by E. C. Allen & Co., and devoted chieflyto stories the "Illustrated Family Herald," which has some ver good points,-published monthly by True & Co. the "Fireside Visitor," a pleasing paper for the winter evenings, another monthly, published by P. 0. Vickery the "Illustrated Monthly," and "Illustrated Family Magazine,"-published monthly by Shaw & Co.,-both excellent in their way. The "Maine Farmer's Almanac" is now published here by Chas E. Nash.

The public buildings of Augusta are the State House, an imposing edifice of white granite, on a commanding site the State Insane Asylum, the county court-house and the jail, both of granite,-the latter of an elegant architecture. Among the handsome private buildings are St. Catherine's Hall (the building of the Episcopal School), the Augusta House, Granite Block, Meionaon Hall, and several notable private dwelling-houses. The finest business edifices in the city are those constituting the publishing establishment of E. C. Allen & Co., illustrations of which are given. The main building is handsome and very substantially built. Its ground dimensions are 65 by 53 feet. The addition-completed a few months since-is of equal size and height. It is constructed of granite, brick and iron, the walls being two feet thick. Though over 100 tons of rapid machinery are in it, yet scarcely the slightest tremor can be perceived. Each story is supplied with a fire apparatus, and sufficient water can be instantly turned on to extinguish any fire that can originate in the building. A steam elevator runs from the bottom to the top capable of carrying a load of five tons from the first floor to the sixth story in thirty seconds. The buildings contain sixteen presses seven of which are Hoe's largest and most rapid machines, being capable of printing over five tons of paper daily. In these buildings are also composing rooms, a bindery and a superior electrotype foundery. The machinery is run by three engines, one of which is a Corliss machine weighing some 50,000 pounds, and costing $10,000. The cost ot the buildings and machinery has been about $300,000. Nearly 500 persons are employed in connection with this establishment. The steam whistle upon the top of the extension, which calls the employês to their labor and releases them from it, is sounded on perfect time, wherefore the clocks for many miles around are quite generally regulated by it.

Handsome shade trees of all sizes and ages adorn the streets, and groups and even groves of them are here and there seen clustering about some ancient mansion. The village of Augusta occupies the successive terraces on each side of the river, so that time business portions are little above time surface of time river, while others seem at an almost mountamous elevation. That part of the city proper lying on time western bank of time river is supplied with water by two aqueducts,-one of them fed wholly by boiling springs. The upper terraces along time river are regarded as very healthy localities. There are many persons living the city who are between eighty and ninety years of age, and some above the latter age.

Among the objects of interest in the town is a portion of old Fort Western, on the east side of the river, a short distance below the bridge. This was built in 1754 by the proprietors of the Plymouth purchase, to whom the ownership of the grant of territory to the Plymouth colony had finally come. This grant was made to the Plymouth colony, North Virginia (or New England) Company in 1629. They immediately umade use of it for the fur trade and as early as 1629 had erected a trading house at Cusimnoc-now Augusta. A powerful subtribe of time Canibas Indians then resided in the vicinity. In the second Indian war all the improvements on the river were laid waste After the peace of 1713, a stone fort, said to be the strongest then in the country, was built under time direction of Dr. Noyes. The succeeding wars again devastated the place and so little was left of the stone fort that Fort Western was constructed wholly of wood. Though in 1675 there were reckoned to be 100 inhabitants on the Kennebec-many of whom must have been at Cushnoc-the place was desolate so many years that James Howard who commanded Fort Western, is considered by local historians as the first settler. Others of the early settlers were James Page and Moses Greely, Ephrairn Cowan and Daniel Hilton, Williams, Hamlin, Sewall, Titcomb, Bridge, Fuller, Robinson, Flagg, Cony, Stone, Ingraham, Dillingham, Smith, North, Savage, Church, Rice, Gage, Chandler, Emery, and Dorr. The place was incorporated as a part of Hallowell in 1771, but was set off and incorporated under the name of Harrington in 1797, the change to the present name (Augusta) being made the same year. It became the shire town of the county in 1798, and the capital of the State in 1828. The capitol was finished in 1832, the Insane Asylum in 1840, and the Corner stone of time Arsenal was laid in June, 1828. The dam of the river at this point was completed in 1838, and time first cotton mill erected in 1840. In 1849, Augusta was incorporated as a city, Alfred Reddington being time first mayor. Subsequent mayors have been J. A. Pettengill, Samuel Cony, Joseph W. Patterson, Albert G. Dole, James W. North, Sylvanus Caldwell, Wm. T. Johnson, Daniel Wilhams, Samuel Titeoinb, J. J. Eveleth, Daniel A. Cony, and Chas. E. Nash, and Peleg O. Viekery.

Many emment persons have been natives or residents of Augusta. Hon. Reuel Williams, a native and resident, was twice chosen a member ot the national Senate. Luther Severance, founder of the "Kennebec Journal," served with marked ability as representative in Con gress. Hon. James W. Bradbury, a native of Parsonsfield, but a resdent of Augusta for about fifty years, has filled with ability prominent positions under the State government, served a term in the national Senate. Lot M. Morrill, formerly goverrmor of the State and national Senator, became a resident in early manhood. Hon. James G. Bline, became a resident when a young man, represented the district in Congress for several terms, and served as speaker of the House with distiriguished ability. He was one of the principal candidates for the presidency of the nation in 1876, and was in the same year elected to the Senate. Hon. R. D. Rice, formerly a judge of the Supreme Court of the State, is a resident of Augusta. Among present eminent citizens are Hon. Artemas Libbey, a judge of the same court, Hon. Janies W. North, historian and, for several terms, mayor of the city Hon. William P. Whitehouse, judge of the Superior Court Hon. Joseph H. Williams, once governor of Maine Hon. John L. Stevens, formerly minister to Paraguay and later minister resident at Stockholm and Hon. Selden Connor, a brigadier-general in the war of the Rebellion, and governor of Maine for three terms. Edward Stanwood, Esq., managing editor of the "Boston Advertiser," was a native of this town. Augusta sent about 1,000 men into the army during the war of the Rebellion, of whom some 200 were lost. Their monument consists of a bronze figure of Liberty mounted upon a granite pedestal. Upon the faces of the latter are bronze dies representing the career of the volunteer soldier, and bronze emblems of State and Nation. The total height of the monument is about forty-eight feet.

The leading denominations all have church edifices, and sustain regular preaching. The granite church of the Congregationalists is a noble building and occupies ample and attractive grounds. The denomination sustained meetings long before there was a church edifice in town.

The educational facilities of the city are supplied by the Dirigo Business College, and a graded system of public schools. The school. houses belongmg to the city number 33, and are valued at $55,000.

Community Reviews

Exhaustive history of Augusta, Maine from its early exploration to just after the Civil War. The hardcover includes a map of downtown and the devastation caused by the great fire of 1865. (You can find it without great difficulty at several rare / used book dealers it is also on hand at Lithgow Library.)

Tends to focus heavily on the familial interactions throughout the city&aposs early history exceedingly loquacious, as well, with the proper English of the age at which it was written. Think "Charl Exhaustive history of Augusta, Maine from its early exploration to just after the Civil War. The hardcover includes a map of downtown and the devastation caused by the great fire of 1865. (You can find it without great difficulty at several rare / used book dealers it is also on hand at Lithgow Library.)

Tends to focus heavily on the familial interactions throughout the city's early history exceedingly loquacious, as well, with the proper English of the age at which it was written. Think "Charles Dickens takes up Augusta's past," and you'll have a good sense of the length, tone and detail you'll find in North's history. . more

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Watch the video: History of Augusta, Maine Via Postcard


  1. Fauran

    Do not take in the head!

  2. Shakagar

    It is simply an amazing topic

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